Relationship between ethnicity and stage at diagnosis in England: a national analysis of six cancer sites
Fry, Anna; White, Becky; Nagarwalla, Diana; Shelton, Jon; Jack, Ruth H
RUTH JACK Ruth.Jack@nottingham.ac.uk
Senior Research Fellow
Objectives: Cancer stage at diagnosis is a determinant of treatment options and survival. Previous research has shown differences in barriers to presentation with cancer between ethnic groups. The completeness and quality of cancer stage and ethnicity data has improved markedly over recent years in England, allowing for comparison of stage distributions at diagnosis between ethnic groups. This study aimed to assess relationships between ethnic group and two outcomes: unknown stage cancer and late stage (stages 3 and 4) cancer, after adjustment for confounders.
Design and setting: A retrospective secondary data analysis using data from NHS Digital's National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service and Hospital Episode Statistics records from 2012 to 2016.
Participants: This study analysed newly diagnosed breast, colon, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), ovary, prostate and uterine cancers in white British, Caribbean, African, Chinese and Asian patients aged 15-99 in England.
Results: Caribbean, African and Asian women with breast or ovarian cancer, Caribbean and African women with uterine or colon cancer, Caribbean women with NSCLC and Caribbean men with colon cancer had increased odds of late-stage disease at diagnosis compared with the white British cohort. In contrast, Caribbean and African men with prostate cancer had decreased odds of late-stage cancer. Where stage was known, there were variations in late-stage cancer by ethnic group.
Conclusions: Low symptom awareness and barriers to presentation can cause delays, resulting in later stage diagnosis. Targeted intervention campaigns to help raise awareness of cancer signs and symptoms and the benefits of early diagnosis, along with removing barriers to appropriate referrals, could help to improve these inequalities.
Fry, A., White, B., Nagarwalla, D., Shelton, J., & Jack, R. H. (2023). Relationship between ethnicity and stage at diagnosis in England: a national analysis of six cancer sites. BMJ Open, 13(1), Article e062079. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2022-062079
|Journal Article Type||Article|
|Acceptance Date||Nov 25, 2022|
|Online Publication Date||Jan 26, 2023|
|Publication Date||Jan 26, 2023|
|Deposit Date||Jan 31, 2023|
|Publicly Available Date||Feb 2, 2023|
|Publisher||BMJ Publishing Group|
|Peer Reviewed||Peer Reviewed|
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