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Stacking sequence optimisation of an aircraft wing skin

Ntourmas, Georgios; Glock, Florian; Deinert, Sebastian; Daoud, Fernass; Schuhmacher, Gerd; Chronopoulos, Dimitrios; Özcan, Ender; Ninić, Jelena

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Georgios Ntourmas

Florian Glock

Sebastian Deinert

Fernass Daoud

Gerd Schuhmacher

Dimitrios Chronopoulos

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Professor of Computer Science and Operational Research

Jelena Ninić


This paper demonstrates a stacking sequence optimisation process of a composite aircraft wing skin. A two-stage approach is employed to satisfy all sizing requirements of this industrial sized, medium altitude, long endurance drone. In the first stage of the optimisation, generic stacks are used to describe the thickness and stiffness properties of the structure while considering both structural requirements and discrete guidelines such as blending. In the second stage of the optimisation, mathematical programming is used to solve a Mixed Integer Linear Programming formulation of the stacking sequence optimisation. The proposed approach is suitable for real-world thick structures comprised of multiple patches. Different thickness discretisation strategies are examined for the retrieval of the discrete stacking sequences, with each one having a different influence on the satisfaction of all structural constraints across the various sub-components of the wing. The weight penalty introduced between the continuous and final discrete design of the proposed approach is negligible.


Ntourmas, G., Glock, F., Deinert, S., Daoud, F., Schuhmacher, G., Chronopoulos, D., …Ninić, J. (2023). Stacking sequence optimisation of an aircraft wing skin. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 66(2), Article 31.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Dec 8, 2022
Online Publication Date Jan 18, 2023
Publication Date 2023-02
Deposit Date Mar 6, 2023
Publicly Available Date Mar 7, 2023
Journal Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization
Print ISSN 1615-147X
Electronic ISSN 1615-1488
Publisher Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 66
Issue 2
Article Number 31
Keywords Stacking sequence optimisation, Detailed sizing, Generic stacks, Mixed Integer Programming
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Additional Information Received: 9 July 2022; Revised: 5 December 2022; Accepted: 8 December 2022; First Online: 18 January 2023; : ; : On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.; : The GFEM model and optimisation software are restricted and cannot be shared.


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