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The interaction between viral and environmental risk factors in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis

Tarlinton, Rachael; Khaibullin, Timur; Granatov, Evgenii; Martynova, Ekaterina; Rizvanov, Albert; Khaiboullina, Svetlana


Timur Khaibullin

Evgenii Granatov

Ekaterina Martynova

Albert Rizvanov

Svetlana Khaiboullina


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic debilitating inflammatory disease of unknown ethology targeting the central nervous system (CNS). MS has a polysymptomatic onset and is usually first diagnosed between the ages of 20–40 years. The pathology of the disease is characterized by immune mediated demyelination in the CNS. Although there is no clinical finding unique to MS, characteristic symptoms include sensory symptoms visual and motor impairment. No definitive trigger for the development of MS has been identified but large-scale population studies have described several epidemiological risk factors for the disease. This list is a confusing one including latitude, vitamin D (vitD) levels, genetics, infection with Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) and endogenous retrovirus (ERV) reactivation. This review will look at the evidence for each of these and the potential links between these disparate risk factors and the known molecular disease pathogenesis to describe potential hypotheses for the triggering of MS pathology.


Tarlinton, R., Khaibullin, T., Granatov, E., Martynova, E., Rizvanov, A., & Khaiboullina, S. (2019). The interaction between viral and environmental risk factors in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 20(2), 1-16.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 10, 2019
Online Publication Date Jan 14, 2019
Publication Date Jan 14, 2019
Deposit Date Jan 23, 2019
Publicly Available Date Jan 23, 2019
Journal International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Print ISSN 1661-6596
Electronic ISSN 1422-0067
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 20
Issue 2
Article Number 303
Pages 1-16
Keywords cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL); multiple sclerosis; central nervous system (CNS); Epstein Barr Virus (EBV); HERV
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