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An investigation of potential sources of nutraceuticals from the Niger Delta areas, Nigeria for attenuating oxidative stress

Nwidu, Lucky Legbosi; Alikwe, Philip Cheriose Nzien; Elmorsy, Ekramy; Carter, Wayne Grant


Lucky Legbosi Nwidu

Philip Cheriose Nzien Alikwe

Ekramy Elmorsy


Background: Diets rich in fruits, vegetables, and medicinal plants possess antioxidants potentially capable of mitigating cellular oxidative stress. This study investigated the antioxidant, anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and total phenolic and flavonoids contents (TPC/TFC) of dietary sources traditionally used for memory enhancing in Niger Delta, Nigeria.
Methods: Dacroydes edulis methanolic seed extract (DEMSE), Cola lepidota methanolic seed extract (CLMSE), Terminalia catappa methanolic seed extract (TeCMSE), Tricosanthes cucumerina methanolic seed extract (TrCMSE), Tetrapleura tetraptera methanolic seed extract (TTMSE), and defatted Moringa oleifera methanolic seed extract (DMOMSE); Dennettia tripetala methanolic fruit extract (DTMFE), Artocarpus communis methanolic fruit extract (ACMFE), Gnetum africana methanolic leaf extract (GAMLE), Musa paradisiaca methanolic stembark extract (MPMSE), and Mangifera indica methanolic stembark extract (MIMSE) were evaluated for free radical scavenging antioxidant ability using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power capacity (reduction of ferric iron to ferrous iron), AChE inhibitory potential by Ellman assay, and then TPC/TFC contents determined by estimating milli-equivalents of Gallic acid and Quercetin per gram, respectively. Results: The radical scavenging percentages were as follows: MIMSE (58%), MPMSE (50%), TrCMSE (42%), GAMLE (40%), CLMSE (40%), DMOMSE (38%), and DEMFE (37%) relative to _-tocopherol (98%). The highest iron reducing (antioxidant) capacity was by TrCMSE (52%), MIMSE (40%) and GAMLE (38%). Extracts of MIMSE, TrCMSE, DTMFE, TTMSE, and CLMSE exhibited concentration-dependent AChE inhibitory activity (p less than 0.05–0.001). At a concentration of 200 mug/mL, the AChE inhibitory activity and IC50 (mug/mL) exhibited by the most potent extracts were: MIMSE (~50%/111.9), TrCMSE (~47%/201.2), DTMFE (~32%/529.9), TTMSE (~26%/495.4), and CLMSE (~25%/438.4). The highest TPC were from MIMSE (156.2), TrCMSE (132.65), GAMLE (123.26), and CLMSE (119.63) in mg gallic acid equivalents/g, and for TFC were: MISME (87.35), GAMLE (73.26), ACMFE (69.54), CLMSE (68.35), and TCMSE2 (64.34) mg quercetin equivalents/gram. Conclusions: The results suggest that certain inedible and edible foodstuffs, most notably MIMSE, MPMSE, TrCMSE, GAMLE, and CLMSE may be beneficial to ameliorate the potentially damaging effects of redox stress.


Nwidu, L. L., Alikwe, P. C. N., Elmorsy, E., & Carter, W. G. (2019). An investigation of potential sources of nutraceuticals from the Niger Delta areas, Nigeria for attenuating oxidative stress. Medicines, 6(1),

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 15, 2019
Online Publication Date Jan 20, 2019
Publication Date Jan 20, 2019
Deposit Date Jan 22, 2019
Publicly Available Date Jan 22, 2019
Journal Medicines
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 6
Issue 1
Article Number 15
Public URL
Publisher URL


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