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Energy and exergy analysis of fuel cells: a review

Arshad, Adeel; Ali, Hafiz Muhammad; Habib, Arslan; Bashir, Muhammad Anser; Jabbal, Mark; Yan, Yuying


Adeel Arshad

Hafiz Muhammad Ali

Arslan Habib

Muhammad Anser Bashir

Associate Professor

Professor of Thermofluids Engineering


In this paper, the fundamental overview of theoretical and practical aspects of thermodynamics analysis for mainly used fuel cells (FCs) are presented. The FC converts the chemical energy of fuel (normally hydrogen) directly into electrical energy resulting heat and liquid water as a waste products. In first part, governing equation of mass, energy, entropy and exergy are presented according to first law of thermodynamics (FLT) and second law of thermodynamics (SLT), more specifically energy and exergy analysis are covered for fuel cell system. Basic criteria of energy and exergy analysis of flowing and non-flowing system, energy and exergy efficiencies, analysis procedure and models of reference environment are discussed in detail. In the second part, electrochemical reactions and thermodynamics modeling of proton exchange membrane or polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) are presented.


Arshad, A., Ali, H. M., Habib, A., Bashir, M. A., Jabbal, M., & Yan, Y. (2019). Energy and exergy analysis of fuel cells: a review. Thermal Science and Engineering Progress, 9, 308-321.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Dec 24, 2018
Online Publication Date Dec 28, 2018
Publication Date Mar 30, 2019
Deposit Date Jan 17, 2019
Publicly Available Date Jan 17, 2019
Journal Thermal Science and Engineering Progress
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 9
Pages 308-321
Public URL
Publisher URL


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