The last several decades have seen many advances in the development and application of human rights indicators, which has progressed alongside the continued development of international, regional, and national human rights legal frameworks. This chapter demonstrates how human rights indicators can be used to measure and understand human rights implementation. It discusses different measurement strategies for capturing the changing human rights legal landscape (de jure protection) and the variability in the enjoyment of different human rights (de facto realisation), which together provide great insights into patterns of implementation. The chapter illustrates these different measurement strategies with human rights examples that have used events-based data, standards-based data, survey-based data, and new forms of data, including those arising from earth observation and remote sensing, big data approaches, and artificial intelligence and machine learning. It concludes with a discussion of the remaining lacuna in this area of work and the implications for future research.
Landman, T., & Schwarz, K. (2022). Human rights indicators and implementation. In R. Murray, & D. Long (Eds.), Research Handbook on Implementation of Human Rights in Practice (309-326). United Kingdom: Edward Elgar Publishing. https://doi.org/10.4337/9781800372283.00026