Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

A novel type cold mix pavement material made with calcium-alginate and aggregates


Thamer Alenezi


Andrew Dawson

Alvaro Garcia


This paper has been prepared in the frame of a research focused on the development of Cold Mix pavement materials made with calcium-alginate Capsules (CMC) instead of with just bitumen emulsion, as it is normally made. The initial objective was to remove most of the water in cold mix asphalt by encapsulating bitumen droplets. The encapsulation method allowed the preparation of polynuclear capsules with bitumen emulsion encapsulated, which membrane was made of calcium-alginate. Capsules were mixed with aggregates at the ambient temperature. During mixing, the capsules containing bitumen emulsion would break, release their content and coat the aggregates. To study CMC, an extensive experimental programme has been carried out to evaluate the effect of compaction energy, cement content, curing time and binder type on the mechanical properties of CMC. It was found that CMC test samples increased their Marshall stability linearly with the increase of the compaction energy. Test samples could be demoulded immediately after compaction. Furthermore, the Marshall stability of CMC increased with the curing time, and the general strength improved with the increasing amount of capsules in the mixture. It was found that the bitumen in CMC did not have an important role on the strength of the pavement material, which came mainly from the alginate in the capsules. In short, cold mix pavement materials made with calcium-alginate (Ca-alginate) capsules is a novel material for pavements that has shown potential to be an alternative for conventional cold mix asphalt made with bitumen emulsion.


Alenezi, T., Norambuena-Contreras, J., Dawson, A., & Garcia, A. (2019). A novel type cold mix pavement material made with calcium-alginate and aggregates. Journal of Cleaner Production, 212, 37-45.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Nov 30, 2018
Online Publication Date Nov 30, 2018
Publication Date Mar 1, 2019
Deposit Date Dec 18, 2018
Publicly Available Date Dec 18, 2018
Journal Journal of Cleaner Production
Print ISSN 0959-6526
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 212
Pages 37-45
Keywords Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment; Strategy and Management; Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering; General Environmental Science
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information This article is maintained by: Elsevier; Article Title: A novel type cold mix pavement material made with calcium-alginate and aggregates; Journal Title: Journal of Cleaner Production; CrossRef DOI link to publisher maintained version:; Content Type: article; Copyright: © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


You might also like

Downloadable Citations