Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Assessment of the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the perceptions of empowerment in midwifery practice scale-revised (PEMS-R-IT) in midwives

Fumagalli, Simona; Borrelli, Sara; Galeoto, Giovanni; Panuccio, Francescaroberta; Pignataro, Chiara; Gottardi, Marianna; Nespoli, Antonella


Simona Fumagalli

Giovanni Galeoto

Francescaroberta Panuccio

Chiara Pignataro

Marianna Gottardi

Antonella Nespoli


A higher degree of midwives’ empowerment is associated with greater job satisfaction and better midwifery care outcomes for women and their families. Empowered midwives are able to better empower women who in turn have a positive influence on the midwives’ empowerment. The aim of this study was the translation, cultural adaptation, and validation of the perceptions of empowerment in midwifery scale-revised (PEMS-R) in a group of Italian midwives.

The World Health Organization (WHO) method was adopted to achieve the PEMS-R Italian version. This process involved five steps: 1) forward translation, 2) expert panel translation, 3) back-translation, 4) pre-testing and cognitive interviewing, and 5) final version. The test’s internal consistency and validity were assessed by following international guidelines. Internal consistency was examined through Cronbach’s alpha (α) coefficient.

The PEMS-R-IT was administered to 147 Italian midwives from northern Italy. Factor analysis of the 19 items, extracted 4 factors that explained 74.96% of the variance. The Student’s t-test for independent samples was used to identify a possible correlation between a higher/lower perception of empowerment and: 1) the education level, and 2) the years of experience of recruited midwives. No statistically significant differences were obtained in either case. The PEMS-R-IT was found to have a good internal consistency for each of its 4 subscales.

The PEMS-R-IT is a valid and reliable tool, useful to assess midwives’ empowerment. It can be used in both clinical practice and research in order to investigate the level of empowerment of midwives within the Italian national context.


Fumagalli, S., Borrelli, S., Galeoto, G., Panuccio, F., Pignataro, C., Gottardi, M., & Nespoli, A. (2022). Assessment of the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the perceptions of empowerment in midwifery practice scale-revised (PEMS-R-IT) in midwives. European Journal of Midwifery, 6(May), Article 30.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Feb 10, 2022
Online Publication Date May 23, 2022
Publication Date May 23, 2022
Deposit Date Nov 21, 2022
Publicly Available Date Nov 22, 2022
Journal European Journal of Midwifery
Print ISSN 2585-2906
Electronic ISSN 2585-2906
Publisher EU European Publishing
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 6
Issue May
Article Number 30
Keywords Maternity and Midwifery; Obstetrics and Gynecology; Pediatrics, Perinatology and Child Health
Public URL
Publisher URL,146587,0,2.html


You might also like

Downloadable Citations