This article presents a design methodology for seismic upgrading of existing reinforced concrete (RC) buildings. The methodology is based on the modification of the deflected shape of the structure so as to achieve a near-uniform distribution of interstorey drift along the building height, thereby eliminating damage localization. Yield Point Spectra are utilized for the definition of demand and a direct displacement-based design approach is implemented. The fundamental steps of the method are described in detail, including a systematic evaluation of assumptions and limitations. A full-scale tested structure is used as a case study for assessment and verification of the proposed methodology. Alternative retrofit scenarios are set according to target response and performance levels. The role of the target deflected response shape and its influence on the outcome of the retrofit strategy is investigated. The viability of the alternative retrofit scenarios is studied for different ground motions including near-fault earthquake records.
Thermou, G. E., Pantazopoulou, S. J., & Elnashai, A. S. (2007). Design Methodology for Seismic Upgrading of Substandard Reinforced Concrete Structures. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 11(4), 582-606. doi:10.1080/13632460601031573