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Scaling-up a pharmacist-led information technology intervention (PINCER) to reduce hazardous prescribing in general practices: Multiple interrupted time series study

Rodgers, Sarah; Taylor, Amelia C.; Roberts, Stephen A.; Allen, Thomas; Ashcroft, Darren M.; Barrett, James; Boyd, Matthew J.; Elliott, Rachel A.; Khunti, Kamlesh; Sheikh, Aziz; Laparidou, Despina; Siriwardena, Aloysius Niroshan; Avery, Anthony J.

Authors

Sarah Rodgers

Amelia C. Taylor

Stephen A. Roberts

Thomas Allen

Darren M. Ashcroft

James Barrett

Rachel A. Elliott

Kamlesh Khunti

Aziz Sheikh

Despina Laparidou

Aloysius Niroshan Siriwardena



Abstract

Background: We previously reported on a randomised trial demonstrating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a pharmacist-led information technology intervention (PINCER). We sought to investigate whether PINCER was effective in reducing hazardous prescribing when rolled out at scale in UK general practices. Methods and findings: We used a multiple interrupted time series design whereby successive groups of general practices received the PINCER intervention between September 2015 and April 2017. We used 11 prescribing safety indicators to identify potentially hazardous prescribing and collected data over a maximum of 16 quarterly time periods. The primary outcome was a composite of all the indicators; a composite for indicators associated with gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding was also reported, along with 11 individual indicators of hazardous prescribing. Data were analysed using logistic mixed models for the quarterly event numbers with the appropriate denominator, and calendar time included as a covariate. PINCER was implemented in 370 (94.1%) of 393 general practices covering a population of almost 3 million patients in the East Midlands region of England; data were successfully extracted from 343 (92.7%) of these practices. For the primary composite outcome, the PINCER intervention was associated with a decrease in the rate of hazardous prescribing of 16.7% (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80 to 0.86) at 6 months and 15.3% (aOR 0.85, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.90) at 12 months postintervention. The unadjusted rate of hazardous prescribing reduced from 26.4% (22,503 patients in the numerator/853,631 patients in the denominator) to 20.1% (11,901 patients in the numerator/591,364 patients in the denominator) at 6 months and 19.1% (3,868 patients in the numerator/201,992 patients in the denominator). The greatest reduction in hazardous prescribing associated with the intervention was observed for the indicators associated with GI bleeding; for the GI composite indicator, there was a decrease of 23.9% at both 6 months (aOR 0.76, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.80) and 12 months (aOR 0.76, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.82) postintervention. The unadjusted rate of hazardous prescribing reduced from 31.4 (16,185 patients in the numerator/515,879 patients in the denominator) to 21.2% (7,607 patients in the numerator/358,349 patients in the denominator) at 6 months and 19.5% (2,369 patients in the numerator/121,534 patients in the denominator). We adjusted for calendar time and practice, but since this was an observational study, the findings may have been influenced by unknown confounding factors or behavioural changes unrelated to the PINCER intervention. Data were also not collected for all practices at 6 months and 12 months postintervention. Conclusions: The PINCER intervention, when rolled out at scale in routine clinical practice, was associated with a reduction in hazardous prescribing by 17% and 15% at 6 and 12 months postintervention. The greatest reductions in hazardous prescribing were for indicators associated with risk of GI bleeding. These findings support the wider national rollout of PINCER in England.

Citation

Rodgers, S., Taylor, A. C., Roberts, S. A., Allen, T., Ashcroft, D. M., Barrett, J., …Avery, A. J. (2022). Scaling-up a pharmacist-led information technology intervention (PINCER) to reduce hazardous prescribing in general practices: Multiple interrupted time series study. PLoS Medicine, 19(11), Article e1004133. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1004133

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Oct 21, 2022
Online Publication Date Nov 16, 2022
Publication Date Nov 16, 2022
Deposit Date Nov 17, 2022
Publicly Available Date Nov 17, 2022
Journal PLOS Medicine
Electronic ISSN 1549-1676
Publisher Public Library of Science
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 19
Issue 11
Article Number e1004133
DOI https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1004133
Keywords General Medicine
Public URL https://nottingham-repository.worktribe.com/output/13750679
Publisher URL https://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1004133