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Lone wolf terrorism in Norway

Appleton, Catherine


Catherine Appleton


Anders Behring Breivik’s massacre of 77 people on 22 July 2011 sheds light once again on the dangers and potential dangers posed by ‘lone wolf’ or lone operator terrorist acts. As demonstrated on 22 July, the lone wolf operational model presents a number of critical challenges for crisis management and emergency preparedness. The aim of this article is to draw attention to the phenomenon of lone wolf terrorism and to critically assess the response by Norwegian authorities to the twin terror attacks in 2011. In so doing, it will discuss the implications of lone wolf terrorism for crisis management and contingency planning, and argue that, while law enforcement plays a central role in efforts to combat lone wolf attacks, it is essential that counterterrorist approaches be based on democratic principles and respect for human rights.


Appleton, C. (2014). Lone wolf terrorism in Norway. International Journal of Human Rights, 18(2), 127-142. doi:10.1080/13642987.2014.889390

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Dec 10, 2013
Online Publication Date Mar 20, 2014
Publication Date Feb 17, 2014
Deposit Date Dec 4, 2018
Journal The International Journal of Human Rights
Print ISSN 1364-2987
Electronic ISSN 1744-053X
Publisher Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 18
Issue 2
Pages 127-142
Keywords Lone wolf terrorism; Anders Behring Breivik; crisis management; contingency planning; human rights
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information Peer Review Statement: The publishing and review policy for this title is described in its Aims & Scope.; Aim & Scope:

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