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The Development and Validation of the Osteoporosis Prevention and Awareness Tool (OPAAT) in Malaysia

Toh, Li Shean; Lai, Pauline Siew Mei; Wu, David Bin-Chia; Wong, Kok Thong; Low, Bee Yean; Anderson, Claire


Li Shean Toh

Pauline Siew Mei Lai

David Bin-Chia Wu

Kok Thong Wong

Bee Yean Low


Chung-Jung Chiu




To develop and validate Osteoporosis Prevention and Awareness Tool (OPAAT) in Malaysia.


The OPAAT was modified from the Malaysian Osteoporosis Knowledge Tool and developed from an exploratory study on patients. Face and content validity was established by an expert panel. The OPAAT consists of 30 items, categorized into three domains. A higher score indicates higher knowledge level. English speaking non-osteoporotic postmenopausal women ≥50 years of age and pharmacists were included in the study.


A total of 203 patients and 31 pharmacists were recruited. Factor analysis extracted three domains. Flesch reading ease was 59.2. The mean±SD accuracy rate was 0.60±0.22 (range: 0.26-0.94). The Cronbach’s α for each domain ranged from 0.286-0.748. All items were highly correlated (Spearman’s rho: 0.761-0.990, p

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Mar 15, 2015
Online Publication Date May 4, 2015
Publication Date May 4, 2015
Deposit Date Nov 27, 2018
Journal PLoS ONE
Publisher Public Library of Science
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 10
Issue 5
Article Number e0124553
Public URL
Publisher URL