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Effect of glyceryl trinitrate on haemodynamics in acute stroke: data from the Efficacy of Nitric Oxide in Stroke trial

Appleton, Jason P.; Woodhouse, Lisa J.; Bereczki, Daniel; Berge, Eivind; Christensen, Hanne K.; Collins, R�n�n; Gommans, John; Ntaios, George; Ozturk, Serefnur; Szatmari, Szabolcs; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Sprigg, Nikola; Rothwell, Peter M.; Bath, Philip M.; ENOS Investigators

Effect of glyceryl trinitrate on haemodynamics in acute stroke: data from the Efficacy of Nitric Oxide in Stroke trial Thumbnail


Jason P. Appleton

Daniel Bereczki

Eivind Berge

Hanne K. Christensen

R�n�n Collins

John Gommans

George Ntaios

Serefnur Ozturk

Szabolcs Szatmari

Joanna M. Wardlaw

Professor of Stroke Medicine

Peter M. Rothwell

Stroke Association Professor of Stroke Medicine

ENOS Investigators


Background and Purpose: Increased blood pressure (BP), heart rate and their derivatives (variability, pulse pressure, rate-pressure product [RPP]) are associated with poor clinical outcome in acute stroke. We assessed the effects of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) on haemodynamic parameters, and these on outcome in participants in the Efficacy of Nitric Oxide in Stroke trial.

Methods: 4011 patients with acute stroke and raised BP were randomised within 48 hours of onset to transdermal GTN or no GTN for 7 days. Peripheral haemodynamics were measured at baseline (3 measures) and daily (2 measures) during treatment. Between-visit BP variability over days 1 to 7 (as standard deviation) was assessed in quintiles. Functional outcome was assessed as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and cognition as telephone mini-mental state examination (t-MMSE) at day 90. Analyses were adjusted for baseline prognostic variables. Data are mean difference (MD) or odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

Results: Increased baseline BP (diastolic, variability), heart rate and RPP were each associated with unfavourable functional outcome at day 90. Increased between-visit systolic BP variability was associated with an unfavourable shift in mRS (highest quintile adjusted OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.37 to 1.99), worse cognitive scores (t-MMSE: highest quintile adjusted MD -2.03, 95% CI -2.84 to -1.22) and increased odds of death at day 90 (highest quintile adjusted OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.19). GTN lowered BP and RPP, and increased heart rate at day 1; and reduced between-visit systolic BP variability.

Conclusions: Increased between-visit BP variability was associated with poor functional and cognitive outcomes and increased death 90 days after acute stroke. In addition to lowering BP and RPP, GTN reduced between-visit systolic BP variability. Agents that lower BP variability in acute stroke require further study.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Nov 12, 2018
Online Publication Date Jan 10, 2019
Publication Date 2019-02
Deposit Date Nov 19, 2018
Publicly Available Date Nov 19, 2018
Journal Stroke
Print ISSN 0039-2499
Electronic ISSN 1524-4628
Publisher American Heart Association
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 50
Issue 2
Pages 405-412
Keywords Advanced and Specialised Nursing; Clinical Neurology; Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Public URL
Publisher URL


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