Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Analysis and Mitigation of AC Losses in High Performance Propulsion Motors

Hebala, Ahmed; Nuzzo, Stefano; Connor, Peter H.; Volpe, Giuseppe; Gerada, Chris; Galea, Michael

Analysis and Mitigation of AC Losses in High Performance Propulsion Motors Thumbnail


Ahmed Hebala

Stefano Nuzzo

Senior Application Engineers in Industrialisation of Electrical Machines and Drives

Giuseppe Volpe

Professor of Electrical Machines and Drives


Hady H. Fayek


In this paper, the AC copper losses in classical random windings are investigated and mitigated using several techniques across a range of permanent magnet synchronous motor designs. At high operating frequencies, AC copper losses can represent a substantial share of the total loss in electrical machines, thus, reducing the machine’s overall performance, and increasing the thermal loading. Recently, different approaches for modelling AC copper losses have been proposed. This paper utilises simulation software to quantify the expected AC losses in six different propulsion motor designs. The motor designs are then modified to reduce the AC winding losses through the implementation of five different methods. Using two-dimensional finite element analysis, the magnetisation direction, magnet to airgap ratio, copper stranding, magnetic wedges and the motor slot openings are modified to reduce AC losses. The paper considers distributed, fractional, slot and concentrated windings, and the results show promising reductions across these different winding configurations.


Hebala, A., Nuzzo, S., Connor, P. H., Volpe, G., Gerada, C., & Galea, M. (2022). Analysis and Mitigation of AC Losses in High Performance Propulsion Motors. Machines, 10(9), Article 780.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Aug 29, 2022
Online Publication Date Sep 7, 2022
Publication Date Sep 1, 2022
Deposit Date Nov 11, 2022
Publicly Available Date Nov 11, 2022
Journal Machines
Electronic ISSN 2075-1702
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 10
Issue 9
Article Number 780
Keywords AC losses, finite element analysis, motor design, PMSM, propulsion motor, winding configuration
Public URL
Publisher URL


You might also like

Downloadable Citations