Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Inclusionary control? Theorizing the effects of penal voluntary organizations’ work

Tomczak, Philippa; Thompson, David


Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice

David Thompson


Recent penal policy developments in many jurisdictions suggest an increasing role for voluntary organizations. Voluntary organizations have long worked alongside penal institutions, but the multifaceted ways their programmes affect (ex-)offenders remain insufficiently understood. This article addresses the implications of voluntary organizations’ work with (ex-)offenders, using original empirical data. It adds nuance to netwidening theory, reframing the effects of voluntary organizations’ work as inclusionary and exclusionary. Exclusionary effects sometimes have inclusionary aspects, and inclusionary effects are constrained by a controlling carceral net. We propose the novel concept of inclusionary control. This is not an alibi for punishment but enables rich analysis of the effects of voluntary organizations’ work, and raises possibilities for change in penal practice.


Tomczak, P., & Thompson, D. (2019). Inclusionary control? Theorizing the effects of penal voluntary organizations’ work. Theoretical Criminology, 23(1), 4-24.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jul 24, 2017
Online Publication Date Oct 10, 2017
Publication Date Feb 1, 2019
Deposit Date Oct 31, 2018
Publicly Available Date Nov 1, 2018
Journal Theoretical Criminology
Print ISSN 1362-4806
Electronic ISSN 1461-7439
Publisher SAGE Publications
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 23
Issue 1
Pages 4-24
Keywords netwidening, punishment, social exclusion, social inclusion, voluntary sector
Public URL
Publisher URL


You might also like

Downloadable Citations