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A Bayesian method of evaluating discomfort due to glare: the effect of order bias from a large glare source

Kent, M.G.; Cheung, T.; Altomonte, S.; Schiavon, S.; Lipczyńska, A.


M.G. Kent

T. Cheung

S. Altomonte

S. Schiavon

A. Lipczyńska


Replicating scientific findings is a fundamental aspect of research. However, in studies of discomfort due to glare, it is difficult to make comparisons between the results of different experiments since the statistical tests usually reported do not allow independent findings to be directly compared to each other. Here we present an alternative Bayesian approach that can address this problem. To show how this approach works, we performed a laboratory test with 55 participants to validate the effect of order bias previously detected in a similar study evaluating discomfort due to glare but, this time, under a large luminous source. Using the luminance adjustment procedure, the glare source was varied to meet four sensations of discomfort due to glare. Adjustments were performed under three different order sequences: ascending, descending, and randomised. Test participants provided glare settings using a newly proposed evaluation scale. The effect of order bias detected in the original study was compared to the data obtained with the same methodological procedure in the new experiment using Bayesian inferential tests. The results showed a close replication, highlighting that the order bias effect found in the original study was also present in the new experiment. The wide application of Bayesian methods in the design and analysis of experimental studies may improve the accuracy and validity of glare models.


Kent, M., Cheung, T., Altomonte, S., Schiavon, S., & Lipczyńska, A. (2018). A Bayesian method of evaluating discomfort due to glare: the effect of order bias from a large glare source. Building and Environment, 146, 258-267.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Oct 3, 2018
Online Publication Date Oct 5, 2018
Publication Date Dec 31, 2018
Deposit Date Oct 10, 2018
Publicly Available Date Oct 10, 2018
Journal Building and Environment
Print ISSN 0360-1323
Electronic ISSN 1873-684X
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 146
Pages 258-267
Keywords Bayesian method; Discomfort glare; Experimental bias; Order bias; Statistical analysis
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information This article is maintained by: Elsevier; Article Title: A Bayesian method of evaluating discomfort due to glare: The effect of order bias from a large glare source; Journal Title: Building and Environment; CrossRef DOI link to publisher maintained version:; Content Type: article; Copyright: Crown Copyright © 2018 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


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