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Trustworthy UAV Relationships: Applying the Schema Action World Taxonomy to UAVs and UAV Swarm Operations

Parnell, Katie J.; Fischer, Joel E.; Clark, Jediah R.; Bodenmann, Adrian; Galvez Trigo, Maria Jose; Brito, Mario P.; Divband Soorati, Mohammad; Plant, Katherine L.; Ramchurn, Sarvapali D.


Katie J. Parnell

Professor of Human-Computer Interaction

Jediah R. Clark

Adrian Bodenmann

Maria Jose Galvez Trigo

Mario P. Brito

Mohammad Divband Soorati

Katherine L. Plant

Sarvapali D. Ramchurn


Human Factors play a significant role in the development and integration of avionic systems to ensure that they are trusted and can be used effectively. As Unoccupied Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology becomes increasingly important to the aviation domain this holds true. This study aims to gain an understanding of UAV operators’ trust requirements when piloting UAVs by utilising a popular aviation interview methodology (Schema World Action Research Method), in combination with key questions on trust identified from the literature. Interviews were conducted with six UAV operators, with a range of experience. This identified the importance of past experience to trust and the expectations that operators hold. Recommendations are made that target training to inform experience, in addition to the equipment, procedures and organisational standards that can aid in developing trustworthy systems. The methodology that was developed shows promise for capturing trust within human-automation interactions.


Parnell, K. J., Fischer, J. E., Clark, J. R., Bodenmann, A., Galvez Trigo, M. J., Brito, M. P., …Ramchurn, S. D. (2022). Trustworthy UAV Relationships: Applying the Schema Action World Taxonomy to UAVs and UAV Swarm Operations. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction,

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jul 29, 2022
Online Publication Date Aug 24, 2022
Publication Date Aug 24, 2022
Deposit Date Nov 28, 2022
Publicly Available Date Nov 29, 2022
Journal International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction
Print ISSN 1044-7318
Electronic ISSN 1532-7590
Publisher Taylor and Francis
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Keywords Computer Science Applications; Human-Computer Interaction; Human Factors and Ergonomics
Public URL
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