Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Anthropogenic environmental drivers of antimicrobial resistance in wildlife

Swift, Benjamin M.C.; Bennett, Malcolm; Waller, Katie; Dodd, Christine; Murray, Annie; Gomes, Rachel L.; Humphreys, Bethan; Hobman, Jon L.; Jones, Michael A.; Whitlock, Sophia E.; Mitchell, Lucy J.; Lennon, Rosie J.; Arnold, Kathryn E.


Benjamin M.C. Swift

Katie Waller

Christine Dodd

Annie Murray

Professor of Water & Resource Processing

Bethan Humphreys

Associate Professor

Sophia E. Whitlock

Lucy J. Mitchell

Rosie J. Lennon

Kathryn E. Arnold


The isolation of antimicrobial resistant bacteria (ARB) from wildlife living adjacent to humans has led to the suggestion that such antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is anthropogenically driven by exposure to antimicrobials and ARB. However, ARB have also been detected in wildlife living in areas without interaction with humans. Here, we investigated patterns of resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from 408 wild bird and mammal faecal samples. AMR and multi-drug resistance (MDR) prevalence in wildlife samples differed significantly between a Sewage Treatment Plant (STP; wastes of antibiotic-treated humans) and a Farm site (antibiotic-treated livestock wastes) and Central site (no sources of wastes containing anthropogenic AMR or antimicrobials), but patterns of resistance also varied significantly over time and between mammals and birds. Over 30% of AMR isolates were resistant to colistin, a last-resort antibiotic, but resistance was not due to the mcr-1 gene. ESBL and AmpC activity were common in isolates from mammals. Wildlife were, therefore, harbouring resistance of clinical relevance. AMR E. coli, including MDR, were found in diverse wildlife species, and the patterns and prevalence of resistance were not consistently associated with site and therefore different exposure risks. We conclude that AMR in commensal bacteria of wildlife is not driven simply by anthropogenic factors, and, in practical terms, this may limit the utility of wildlife as sentinels of spatial variation in the transmission of environmental AMR.


Swift, B. M., Bennett, M., Waller, K., Dodd, C., Murray, A., Gomes, R. L., …Arnold, K. E. (2019). Anthropogenic environmental drivers of antimicrobial resistance in wildlife. Science of the Total Environment, 649, 12-20.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Aug 14, 2018
Online Publication Date Aug 16, 2018
Publication Date Feb 1, 2019
Deposit Date Aug 30, 2018
Publicly Available Date Aug 17, 2019
Journal Science of The Total Environment
Print ISSN 0048-9697
Electronic ISSN 1879-1026
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 649
Pages 12-20
Keywords E. coli; Antimicrobial resistance; Wildlife; Birds; Multi-drug resistance; Wastewater treatment
Public URL
Publisher URL


You might also like

Downloadable Citations