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Detection and Characterisation of Conductive Objects Using Electromagnetic Induction and a Fluxgate Magnetometer

Elson, Lucy; Meraki, Adil; Rushton, Lucas M.; Pyragius, Tadas; Jensen, Kasper


Lucy Elson

Lucas M. Rushton

Tadas Pyragius


Eddy currents induced in electrically conductive objects can be used to locate metallic objects as well as to assess the properties of materials non-destructively without physical contact. This technique is useful for material identification, such as measuring conductivity and for discriminating whether a sample is magnetic or non-magnetic. In this study, we carried out experiments and numerical simulations for the evaluation of conductive objects. We investigated the frequency dependence of the secondary magnetic field generated by induced eddy currents when a conductive object is placed in a primary oscillating magnetic field. According to electromagnetic theory, conductive objects have different responses at different frequencies. Using a table-top setup consisting of a fluxgate magnetometer and a primary coil generating a magnetic field with frequency up to 1 kHz, we were able to detect aluminium and steel cylinders using the principle of electromagnetic induction. The experimental results were compared to numerical simulations, with good overall agreement. This technique enables the identification and characterisation of objects using their electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability.


Elson, L., Meraki, A., Rushton, L. M., Pyragius, T., & Jensen, K. (2022). Detection and Characterisation of Conductive Objects Using Electromagnetic Induction and a Fluxgate Magnetometer. Sensors, 22(16), Article 5934.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Aug 6, 2022
Online Publication Date Aug 9, 2022
Publication Date Aug 1, 2022
Deposit Date Aug 13, 2022
Publicly Available Date Aug 15, 2022
Journal Sensors
Print ISSN 1424-8220
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 22
Issue 16
Article Number 5934
Keywords electromagnetic induction, conductivity, eddy current, magnetic field, non-destructive testing, numerical simulation, magnetic permeability, fluxgate magnetometer
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