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First Trimester Maternal Homocysteine and Embryonic and Fetal Growth: The Rotterdam Periconception Cohort

Rubini, Eleonora; Snoek, Katinka M.; Schoenmakers, Sam; Willemsen, Sten P.; Sinclair, Kevin D.; Rousian, Melek; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P.M.

First Trimester Maternal Homocysteine and Embryonic and Fetal Growth: The Rotterdam Periconception Cohort Thumbnail


Authors

Eleonora Rubini

Katinka M. Snoek

Sam Schoenmakers

Sten P. Willemsen

KEVIN SINCLAIR kevin.sinclair@nottingham.ac.uk
Professor of Developmental Biology

Melek Rousian

Régine P.M. Steegers-Theunissen



Abstract

Homocysteine is a marker for derangements in one-carbon metabolism. Elevated homocysteine may represent a causal link between poor maternal nutrition and impaired embryonic and fetal development. We sought to investigate associations between reference range maternal homocysteine and embryonic and fetal growth. We enrolled 1060 singleton pregnancies (555 natural and 505 in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) pregnancies) from November 2010 to December 2020. Embryonic and fetal body and head growth was assessed throughout pregnancy using three-dimensional ultrasound scans and virtual reality techniques. Homocysteine was negatively associated with first trimester embryonic growth in the included population (crown-rump length B −0.023 mm, 95% CI −0.038,−0.007, p = 0.004, embryonic volume B −0.011 cm3, 95% CI −0.018,−0.004, p = 0.003). After stratification for conception mode, this association remained in IVF/ICSI pregnancies with frozen embryo transfer (crown-rump length B −0.051 mm, 95% CI −0.081,−0.023, p < 0.001, embryonic volume B −0.024 cm3, 95% CI −0.039,−0.009, p = 0.001), but not in IVF/ICSI pregnancies with fresh embryo transfer and natural pregnancies. Homocysteine was not associated with longitudinal measurements of head growth in first trimester, nor with second and third trimester fetal growth. Homocysteine in the highest quartile (7.3–14.9 µmol/L) as opposed to the lowest (2.5–5.2 µmol/L) was associated with reduced birth weight in natural pregnancies only (B −51.98 g, 95% CI −88.13,−15.84, p = 0.005). In conclusion, high maternal homocysteine within the reference range is negatively associated with first trimester embryonic growth and birth weight, and the effects of homocysteine are dependent on conception mode.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Mar 3, 2022
Online Publication Date Mar 8, 2022
Publication Date Mar 1, 2022
Deposit Date Mar 28, 2022
Publicly Available Date Mar 29, 2022
Journal Nutrients
Electronic ISSN 2072-6643
Publisher MDPI AG
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 14
Issue 6
Article Number 1129
DOI https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061129
Keywords Food Science; Nutrition and Dietetics
Public URL https://nottingham-repository.worktribe.com/output/7572488
Publisher URL https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/14/6/1129

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