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Influence of waxes on adhesion properties of bituminous binders

Lamperti, Riccardo; Grenfell, James; Sangiorgi, Cesare; Lantieri, Claudio; Airey, Gordon D.


Riccardo Lamperti

James Grenfell

Cesare Sangiorgi

Claudio Lantieri

Gordon D. Airey


The benefits at the base of WMA technologies are well established in the literature. They include the reduction in the energy consumption during the production of mixtures, the reduction in the emissions to the atmosphere in the production plant and a safer working environment. Although many studies have demonstrated good performance of this technology overall, some aspects are still unclear.
This paper aims to investigate the effects of two different waxes, mixed with a 70/100 pen bitumen on bitumen–aggregate adhesion. Physico-chemical surface characteristics of three different aggregates were assessed and combined with those of the bitumens by means of the Dynamic Contact Angle and Dynamic Vapour Sorption Devices. These techniques are an alternative to the procedure used to visually assess the bitumen–aggregate affinity, as given in the in EN 12697-11 standard, in which the materials are mixed together and then immersed in water. Using these procedures the materials are not mixed together, but studied separately, and the evaluation of their affinity for one another is analytically expressed by means of the work of adhesion.
Results have shown that waxes adversely affect the affinity of bitumen with aggregates by differing amounts, depending on the wax type and on the acidic/basic type of the aggregate.


Lamperti, R., Grenfell, J., Sangiorgi, C., Lantieri, C., & Airey, G. D. (2015). Influence of waxes on adhesion properties of bituminous binders. Construction and Building Materials, 76, doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.11.058

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Nov 26, 2014
Online Publication Date Dec 27, 2014
Publication Date Feb 1, 2015
Deposit Date May 11, 2017
Journal Construction and Building Materials
Print ISSN 0950-0618
Electronic ISSN 0950-0618
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 76
Keywords Wax; WMA; Moisture damage; Surface energy; Adhesion; DCA; DVS
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