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Maternal fructose and/or salt intake and reproductive outcome in the rat: effects on growth, fertility, sex ratio, and birth order

Gray, Clint; Long, Sophie; Green, Charlotte; Gardiner, Sheila M.; Craigon, Jim; Gardner, David S.

Authors

Clint Gray

Sophie Long

Charlotte Green

Sheila M. Gardiner

Jim Craigon

David S. Gardner

Abstract

Maternal diet can significantly skew the secondary sex ratio away from the expected value of 0.5 (proportion males), but the details of how diet may do this are unclear. Here, we altered dietary levels of salt (4% salt in the feed) and/or fructose (10% in the drinking water) of pregnant rats to model potential effects that consumption of a “Western diet” might have on maternofetal growth, development, and sex ratio. We demonstrate that excess fructose consumption before and during pregnancy lead to a marked skew in the secondary sex ratio (proportion of males, 0.60; P < 0.006). The effect was not mediated by selective developmental arrest of female embryos or influenced by fetal position in the uterine horn or sex-specific effects on sperm motility, suggesting a direct effect of glycolyzable monosaccharide on the maternal ovary and/or ovulated oocyte. Furthermore, combined excess maternal consumption of salt and fructose-sweetened beverage significantly reduced fertility, reflected as a 50% reduction in preimplantation and term litter size. In addition, we also noted birth order effects in the rat, with sequential implantation sites tending to be occupied by the same sex.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Sep 1, 2013
Journal Biology of Reproduction
Print ISSN 0006-3363
Electronic ISSN 1529-7268
Publisher Oxford University Press (OUP)
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 89
Issue 3
Article Number 51
Institution Citation Gray, C., Long, S., Green, C., Gardiner, S. M., Craigon, J., & Gardner, D. S. (2013). Maternal fructose and/or salt intake and reproductive outcome in the rat: effects on growth, fertility, sex ratio, and birth order. Biology of Reproduction, 89(3), doi:10.1095/biolreprod.113.109595
DOI https://doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.113.109595
Keywords fertility, fructose, nutrition, rat, reproduction, salt, sex ratio
Publisher URL http://www.biolreprod.org/content/89/3/51.long
Copyright Statement Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://eprints.nottingh.../end_user_agreement.pdf

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Copyright Statement
Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/end_user_agreement.pdf




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