Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Male seminal parameters are not associated with Leydig cell functional capacity in men

Anand?Ivell, Ravinder; Tremellen, Kelton; Soyama, Hiroaki; Enki, Doyo; Ivell, Richard

Male seminal parameters are not associated with Leydig cell functional capacity in men Thumbnail


Kelton Tremellen

Hiroaki Soyama

Senior Medical Statistician

Richard Ivell


Background: Insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) is a constitutive, secreted peptide produced in the male uniquely by the Leydig cells of the testes. It is a biomarker for Leydig cell functional capacity, which is a measure of the numbers and differentiation status of these steroidogenic cells and lacks the biological and technical variance of the steroid testosterone. This retrospective study was carried out to examine the relationship between seminal parameters and the Leydig cell compartment, and secondarily to assess other factors responsible for determining Leydig cell functional capacity. Methods: INSL3 was assessed together with seminal, anthropometric, and hormonal parameters in a Swedish cohort of 18-year-old men, representing the average population, and in a smaller, more heterogeneous cohort of men visiting an Australian infertility clinic. Results and discussion: Average INSL3 concentration at 18years is greater than that reported at younger or older ages and indicated a large 10-fold variation. In neither cohort was there a relationship between INSL3 concentration and any semen parameter. For the larger, more uniform Swedish cohort of young men, there was a significant negative relationship between INSL3 and BMI, supporting the idea that adult Leydig cell functional capacity may be established during puberty. In both cohorts, there was a significant relationship between INSL3 and FSH, but not LH concentration. No relationship was found between INSL3 and androgen receptor trinucleotide repeat polymorphisms, reinforcing the notion that Leydig cell functional capacity is unlikely to be determined by androgen influence alone. Nor did INSL3 correlate with the T/LH ratio, an alternative measure of Leydig cell functional capacity, supporting the view that these are independent measures of Leydig cell function.


Anand?Ivell, R., Tremellen, K., Soyama, H., Enki, D., & Ivell, R. (2021). Male seminal parameters are not associated with Leydig cell functional capacity in men. Andrology, 9(4), 1126-1136.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Mar 10, 2021
Online Publication Date Mar 24, 2021
Publication Date 2021-07
Deposit Date Mar 16, 2021
Publicly Available Date Mar 25, 2022
Journal Andrology
Print ISSN 2047-2919
Electronic ISSN 2047-2927
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 9
Issue 4
Pages 1126-1136
Public URL
Publisher URL


You might also like

Downloadable Citations