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Bamgro: A simple model to simulate the response of bambara groundnut to abiotic stress

Karunaratne, A. S.; Azam-Ali, S. N.; Crout, N. M.J.


A. S. Karunaratne

S. N. Azam-Ali

Professor of Environmental Modelling


Simulation models for many crops are often simple, empirical equations that lack generality across different locations or different levels of abiotic stress making them difficult to apply by independent researchers. The objective of this paper is to describe and demonstrate a user-oriented model 'BAMGRO' for an underutilized crop, bambara groundnut with enough detail to be general across locations and genotypes but not so complex that independent users cannot apply it to their own situations. The model consists of different sub-modules that deal specifically with weather (thermal time), crop growth (canopy development, biomass production and yield), temperature (heat and cold stress), photoperiod (daylength control of phenology and reproductive development) and soil water (drought stress). The model predictions are achieved by defining genotype (i.e. cultivar) input files, daily weather parameters and soil characteristics. The model achieves a good fit between observed and predicted data for leaf area index (Nash and Sutcliffe (N-S), 0.80-0.84; mean absolute error (MAE) with maximum less than ± 0.50) for tested genotypes. Pod yield simulation correlated well with measured values (N-S 0.73-0.87; MAE ± 16 g m ?2). Available soil moisture content correlated well with the observed data for a field site in Botswana indicating successful performance of the soil water module. © Cambridge University Press 2011.


Karunaratne, A. S., Azam-Ali, S. N., & Crout, N. M. (2011). Bamgro: A simple model to simulate the response of bambara groundnut to abiotic stress. Experimental Agriculture, 47(3), 489-507.

Journal Article Type Article
Online Publication Date May 6, 2011
Publication Date 2011-07
Deposit Date Sep 14, 2021
Journal Experimental Agriculture
Print ISSN 0014-4797
Electronic ISSN 1469-4441
Publisher Cambridge University Press (CUP)
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 47
Issue 3
Pages 489-507
Public URL
Publisher URL