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Kampong Ayer: A community living on water in Brunei Darussalam

Haji Adenan, R.; Rodrigues, L.; Borsi, K.; Kiamba, L.


R. Haji Adenan

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Assistant Professor - Environmental Design and Architecture


© Copyright: CEPT University, Center for Advanced Research in Building Science & Energy, Ahmedabad First Published 2014. All rights reserved. Land scarcity and rising population in developing countries, particularly in the urban parts of Asia, has led to limited livable floor area for domestic mass housing. Developing countries with similar climate and cultural background face common challenges with their comparatively larger population resulting in highrise housing. While this may be a solution to accommodating the increasing density in many cities, issues relating to cultural preservation, vernacular architecture conservation, social structures, environmental comfort and sense of community are often in contradiction with this urban solution. In particular, with for a rural community with different characteristics to an urban intent, the transition might prove stressful. In Brunei Darussalam, encouraging living both on water (in Kampong Ayer) and on land is what is being currently proposed. However, as its population is rapidly increasing and living on land is becoming increasingly popular, in this paper, the authors question if the housing developments on the water in Kampong Ayer, promote a sustainable community. The authors explored if waterside housing development, modelled on traditional settlement patterns, can provide a viable solution for rural housing in parts of Brunei. Domestic and communal relationships of its inhabitants were defined to identify sociospatial patterns of a sustainable community. Findings include the correlations between the formal and spatial organization of the home and patterns of occupation.


Haji Adenan, R., Rodrigues, L., Borsi, K., & Kiamba, L. (2014). Kampong Ayer: A community living on water in Brunei Darussalam. In PLEA 2014 Conference Proceedings: Sustainable Habitat for Developing Societies (33-40)

Conference Name 30th International PLEA Conference: Sustainable Habitat for Developing Societies: Choosing the Way Forward
Conference Location Ahmedabad, India
Start Date Dec 16, 2014
End Date Dec 18, 2014
Publication Date 2014
Deposit Date Feb 25, 2022
Volume 2
Pages 33-40
Book Title PLEA 2014 Conference Proceedings: Sustainable Habitat for Developing Societies
ISBN 9789383184026
Public URL