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The executive disruption model of tinnitus distress: Model validation in two independent datasets using factor score regression

Clarke, Nathan A.; Akeroyd, Michael A.; Henshaw, Helen; Hall, Deborah A.; Mohamad, Wan Najibah Wan; Hoare, Derek J.


Nathan A. Clarke

Deborah A. Hall

Wan Najibah Wan Mohamad

Associate Professor in Hearing Sciences


This study presents the executive disruption model (EDM) of tinnitus distress and subsequently validates it statistically using two independent datasets (the Construction Dataset: n = 96 and the Validation Dataset: n = 200). The conceptual EDM was first operationalised as a structural causal model (construction phase). Then multiple regression was used to examine the effect of executive functioning on tinnitus-related distress (validation phase), adjusting for the additional contributions of hearing threshold and psychological distress. For both datasets, executive functioning negatively predicted tinnitus distress score by a similar amount (the Construction Dataset: β = −3.50, p = 0.13 and the Validation Dataset: β = −3.71, p = 0.02). Theoretical implications and applications of the EDM are subsequently discussed; these include the predictive nature of executive functioning in the development of distressing tinnitus, and the clinical utility of the EDM.


Clarke, N. A., Akeroyd, M. A., Henshaw, H., Hall, D. A., Mohamad, W. N. W., & Hoare, D. J. (2023). The executive disruption model of tinnitus distress: Model validation in two independent datasets using factor score regression. Frontiers in Psychology, 14, Article 1006349.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 6, 2023
Online Publication Date Feb 10, 2023
Publication Date Feb 10, 2023
Deposit Date Feb 17, 2023
Publicly Available Date Feb 17, 2023
Journal Frontiers in Psychology
Publisher Frontiers Media
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 14
Article Number 1006349
Keywords Tinnitus, cognition, tinnitus severity, tinnitus distress, executive function
Public URL
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Additional Information Copyright © 2023 Clarke, Akeroyd, Henshaw, Hall, Mohamad and Hoare. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.


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