Breaking the so-called diffraction limit on the resolution of optical devices and achieving subwavelength focusing requires tailoring the evanescent spectrum of wave fields. There are several possible approaches, all of which have limitations, such as the generation of strong additional scattering, limited focusing power, issues at the implementation step, and the need for a drain at the focal point. This paper presents a feasible strategy based on the concepts of the perfect lens and power flow-conformal metasurfaces. Desired fields for subwavelength focusing are integrated using double-negative media and then the surface profile of a focusing reflector is designed to be tangential to the desired power flow, so that the metasurface can be modeled as a local impedance boundary, and can be easily implemented using passive and lossless elements. Full-wave simulations demonstrate that an example reactive metasurface is able to break the diffraction limit and provide near-field focusing with subwavelength hotspot size. We expect that the outcome will find applications in antennas, beam-shaping devices, nonradiative wireless power transfer systems, microscopy, and lithography.
Taghvaee, H., Liu, F., Díaz-Rubio, A., & Tretyakov, S. (2023). Perfect-Lens Theory Enables Metasurface Reflectors for Subwavelength Focusing. Physical Review Applied, 19(1), Article 014004. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevApplied.19.014004