Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Cage Molecules Stabilize Lead Halide Perovskite Thin Films

Sun, Shijing; Liu, Ming; Thapa, Janak; Hartono, Noor Titan Putri; Zhao, Yicheng; He, Donglin; Wieghold, Sarah; Chua, Matthew; Wu, Yue; Bulović, Vladimir; Ling, Sanliang; Brabec, Christoph J.; Cooper, Andrew I.; Buonassisi, Tonio


Shijing Sun

Ming Liu

Janak Thapa

Noor Titan Putri Hartono

Yicheng Zhao

Donglin He

Sarah Wieghold

Matthew Chua

Yue Wu

Vladimir Bulović

Christoph J. Brabec

Andrew I. Cooper

Tonio Buonassisi


The environmental stability of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP) materials needs to increase, to enable their widespread adoption in thin-film solar and optoelectronic devices. Molecular additives emerged recently as an effective strategy to regulate HOIP crystal growth and to passivate defects. However, to date the choice of additives is largely limited to a dozen or so materials under the design philosophy that high crystallinity is a prerequisite for stable HOIP thin films. In this study, we incorporate porous organic cages (POCs) as functional additives into perovskite thin films for the first time and investigate the HOIP-POC interaction via a combined experimental and computational approach. POCs are significantly larger than small molecule additives explored for HOIP synthesis to date but much smaller than polymeric sealants. Partially amorphized composites of MAPbI3 (methylammonium lead iodide, HOIP) and RCC3 (an amine POC) form a network-like surface topography and lead to an increase in the optical bandgap from 1.60 eV to 1.63 eV. Further in situ optical imaging suggests that RCC3 can delay the MAPbI3 film degradation onset up to 50 × under heat and humidity stresses, showing premises in reliability improvement for HOIP-based solar-cell and light-emitting applications. Furthermore, there is evidence of molecular interactions between RCC3 and MAPbI3, as fingerprinted by the suppressed N-H stretching mode in MA+ from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and by density functional theory (DFT) simulations, which suggest strong hydrogen bonding between MA+ and RCC3. Given the diversity of POCs and HOIPs, our work opens a new avenue to stabilize HOIPs via tailored molecular interactions with functional organic materials.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Sep 26, 2022
Online Publication Date Oct 26, 2022
Publication Date Nov 8, 2022
Deposit Date Nov 5, 2022
Publicly Available Date Oct 27, 2023
Journal Chemistry of Materials
Print ISSN 0897-4756
Electronic ISSN 1520-5002
Publisher American Chemical Society (ACS)
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 34
Issue 21
Pages 9384–9391
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in Chemistry of Materials. To access the final edited and published work see


You might also like

Downloadable Citations