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“Beyond the pale of mercy”: Victorian penal culture, police court missionaries, and the origins of probation in England (2015)
Journal Article
Auerbach, S. (in press). “Beyond the pale of mercy”: Victorian penal culture, police court missionaries, and the origins of probation in England. Law and History Review, 33(3), doi:10.1017/S0738248015000280. ISSN 0738-2480

One of the most striking changes in the penal culture of fin-de-siècle Europe was England's reform of adjudication and punishment. In this “de-moralization of criminality,” the system began to shed its punitive sentencing, which often saw minor offen... Read More