Research Repository

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What is the difference between irony and sarcasm? An fMRI study (2019)
Journal Article
Filik, R., Țurcan, A., Ralph-Nearman, C., & Pitiot, A. (2019). What is the difference between irony and sarcasm? An fMRI study. Cortex, doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2019.01.025

Verbal irony is a figure of speech that communicates the opposite of what is said, while sarcasm is a form of irony that is directed at a person, with the intent to criticise. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with t... Read More

The role of defaultness and personality factors in sarcasm interpretation: evidence from eye-tracking during reading (2018)
Journal Article
Filik, R., Howman, H., Ralph-Nearman, C., & Giora, R. (2018). The role of defaultness and personality factors in sarcasm interpretation: evidence from eye-tracking during reading. Metaphor and Symbol, 33(3), (148-162). doi:10.1080/10926488.2018.1481258. ISSN 1092-6488

Theorists have debated whether our ability to understand sarcasm is principally determined by the context (Gibbs, 1994; Utsumi, 2000) or by properties of the comment itself (Giora, 1997; 2003; Grice, 1975). The current research investigated an alter... Read More

Electrophysiological dynamics of Chinese phonology during visual word recognition in Chinese-English bilinguals (2018)
Journal Article
Wen, Y., Filik, R., & van Heuven, W. J. (in press). Electrophysiological dynamics of Chinese phonology during visual word recognition in Chinese-English bilinguals. Scientific Reports, 8, doi:10.1038/s41598-018-25072-w. ISSN 2045-2322

Silent word reading leads to the activation of orthographic (spelling), meaning, as well as phonological (sound) information. For bilinguals, native language information can also be activated automatically when they read words in their second languag... Read More

New body scales reveal body dissatisfaction, thin-ideal, and muscularity-ideal in males (2018)
Journal Article
Ralph-Nearman, C., & Filik, R. (in press). New body scales reveal body dissatisfaction, thin-ideal, and muscularity-ideal in males. American Journal of Men's Health, doi:10.1177/1557988318763516. ISSN 1557-9883

The aim of the current study was to develop, test, and re-test two new male body dissatisfaction scales: The Male Body Scale (MBS; consisting of emaciated to obese figures) and the Male Fit Body Scale (MFBS; consisting of emaciated to muscular figure... Read More

Task-dependent evaluative processing of moral and emotional content during comprehension: an ERP study (2018)
Journal Article
Kunkel, A., Filik, R., Mackenzie, I. G., & Leuthold, H. (2018). Task-dependent evaluative processing of moral and emotional content during comprehension: an ERP study. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience, 18(2), doi:10.3758/s13415-018-0577-5. ISSN 1530-7026

Recently, we showed that when participants passively read about moral transgressions (e.g., adultery) they implicitly engage in the evaluative (good–bad) categorization of incoming information, as indicated by a larger event-related brain potential (... Read More

Examining the emotional impact of sarcasm using a virtual environment (2018)
Journal Article
Pickering, B., Thompson, D., & Filik, R. (in press). Examining the emotional impact of sarcasm using a virtual environment. Metaphor and Symbol, ISSN 1092-6488

This study aimed to investigate the emotional impact of sarcasm. Previous research in this area has mainly required participants to answer questions based on written materials, and results have been mixed. With the aim of instead examining the emotio... Read More

Perspective effects during reading: evidence from text change-detection (2017)
Journal Article
Bohan, J., & Filik, R. (in press). Perspective effects during reading: evidence from text change-detection. Discourse Processes, 55(2), doi:10.1080/0163853X.2017.1330020. ISSN 0163-853X

We report two text change-detection studies in which we investigate the influence of reading perspective on text memory. In Experiment 1, participants read from the perspective of one of two characters in a series of short stories, and word changes w... Read More

The emotional impact of verbal irony: eye-tracking evidence for a two-stage process (2016)
Journal Article
Filik, R., Brightman, E., Gathercole, C., & Leuthold, H. (2017). The emotional impact of verbal irony: eye-tracking evidence for a two-stage process. Journal of Memory and Language, 93, doi:10.1016/j.jml.2016.09.006. ISSN 0749-596X

In this paper we investigate the socio-emotional functions of verbal irony. Specifically, we use eye-tracking while reading to assess moment-to-moment processing of a character’s emotional response to ironic versus literal criticism. In Experiment 1,... Read More

An eye-tracking investigation of written sarcasm comprehension: the roles of familiarity and context (2016)
Journal Article
Turcan, A., & Filik, R. (2016). An eye-tracking investigation of written sarcasm comprehension: the roles of familiarity and context. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 42(12), doi:10.1037/xlm0000285. ISSN 0278-7393

This paper addresses a current theoretical debate between the standard pragmatic model, the graded salience hypothesis, and the implicit display theory, by investigating the roles of the context and of the properties of the sarcastic utterance itself... Read More

Emotional responses to irony and emoticons in written language: evidence from EDA and facial EMG (2016)
Journal Article
Thompson, D., Mackenzie, I. G., Leuthold, H., & Filik, R. (2016). Emotional responses to irony and emoticons in written language: evidence from EDA and facial EMG. Psychophysiology, 53(7), doi:10.1111/psyp.12642. ISSN 0048-5772

While the basic nature of irony is saying one thing and communicating the opposite, it may also serve additional social and emotional functions, such as projecting humour or anger. Emoticons often accompany irony in computer-mediated communication, a... Read More

Sarcasm in written communication: emoticons are efficient markers of intention (2016)
Journal Article
Thompson, D., & Filik, R. (2016). Sarcasm in written communication: emoticons are efficient markers of intention. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 21(2), 105-120. doi:10.1111/jcc4.12156

Here we present two studies that investigate the use of emoticons in clarifying message intent. We look at sarcasm in particular, which can be especially hard to interpret correctly in written communication. In both studies, participants were require... Read More

Sarcasm and emoticons: comprehension and emotional impact (2015)
Journal Article
Filik, R., Turcan, A., Thompson, D., Harvey, N., Davies, H., & Turner, A. (2015). Sarcasm and emoticons: comprehension and emotional impact. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 69(11), doi:10.1080/17470218.2015.1106566. ISSN 1747-0218

Most theorists agree that sarcasm serves some communicative function that would not be achieved by speaking directly, such as eliciting a particular emotional response in the recipient. One debate concerns whether this kind of language serves to enha... Read More

Online processing of moral transgressions: ERP evidence for spontaneous evaluation (2015)
Journal Article
Leuthold, H., FILIK, R., Kunkel, A., & Mackenzie, I. G. (2015). Online processing of moral transgressions: ERP evidence for spontaneous evaluation. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 10(8), 1021–1029. doi:10.1093/scan/nsu151

Experimental studies using fictional moral dilemmas indicate that both automatic emotional processes and controlled cognitive processes contribute to moral judgments. However, not much is known about how people process socio-normative violations that... Read More

When language gets emotional: irony and the embodiment of affect in discourse (2015)
Journal Article
Filik, R., Hunter, C. M., & Leuthold, H. (2015). When language gets emotional: irony and the embodiment of affect in discourse. Acta Psychologica, 156, doi:10.1016/j.actpsy.2014.08.007. ISSN 0001-6918

Although there is increasing evidence to suggest that language is grounded in perception and action, the relationship between language and emotion is less well understood. We investigate the grounding of language in emotion using a novel approach tha... Read More

Inner speech during silent reading reflects the reader's regional accent (2011)
Journal Article
Filik, R., & Barber, E. (2011). Inner speech during silent reading reflects the reader's regional accent. PLoS ONE, 6(10), doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025782. ISSN 1932-6203

While reading silently, we often have the subjective experience of inner speech. However, there is currently little evidence regarding whether this inner voice resembles our own voice while we are speaking out loud. To investigate this issue, we comp... Read More