Research Repository

See what's under the surface


Understanding arithmetic concepts: the role of domain-specific and domain-general skills (2018)
Journal Article
Gilmore, C., Clayton, S., Cragg, L., McKeaveney, C., Simms, V., & Johnson, S. (2018). Understanding arithmetic concepts: the role of domain-specific and domain-general skills. PLoS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0201724. ISSN 1932-6203

A large body of research has identified cognitive skills associated with overall mathematics achievement, focusing primarily on identifying associates of procedural skills. Conceptual understanding, however, has received less attention, despite its i... Read More

Cognitive predictors of parent-rated inattention in very preterm children: the role of working memory and processing speed (2018)
Journal Article
Retzler, J., Johnson, S., Groom, M., Hollis, C., Budge, H., & Cragg, L. (2018). Cognitive predictors of parent-rated inattention in very preterm children: the role of working memory and processing speed. Child Neuropsychology, doi:10.1080/09297049.2018.1510908. ISSN 0929-7049

Background: Inattention is one of the most common neurobehavioural problems following very preterm birth. Attention problems can persist into adulthood and are associated with negative socio-emotional and educational outcomes. This study aimed to det... Read More

Mathematics students demonstrate superior visuo-spatial working memory to humanities students under conditions of low central executive processing load (2018)
Journal Article
Hubber, P. J., Gilmore, C., & Cragg, L. (in press). Mathematics students demonstrate superior visuo-spatial working memory to humanities students under conditions of low central executive processing load. Journal of Numerical Cognition,

Previous research has demonstrated that working memory performance is linked to mathematics achievement. Most previous studies have involved children and arithmetic rather than more advanced forms of mathematics. This study compared the performance o... Read More

The threshold for the McGurk effect in audio-visual noise decreases with development (2018)
Journal Article
Hirst, R. J., Stacey, J. E., Cragg, L., Stacey, P. C., & Allen, H. A. (2018). The threshold for the McGurk effect in audio-visual noise decreases with development. Scientific Reports, 8, doi:10.1038/s41598-018-30798-8

Across development, vision increasingly influences audio-visual perception. This is evidenced in illusions such as the McGurk effect, in which a seen mouth movement changes the perceived sound. The current paper assessed the effects of manipulating t... Read More

Vision dominates audition in adults but not children: a meta-analysis of the Colavita effect (2018)
Journal Article
Hirst, R. J., Cragg, L., & Allen, H. A. (2018). Vision dominates audition in adults but not children: a meta-analysis of the Colavita effect. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 94, (286-301). doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.07.012. ISSN 0149-7634

The Colavita effect occurs when participants respond only to the visual element of an audio-visual stimulus. This visual dominance effect is proposed to arise from asymmetric facilitation and inhibition between modalities. It has also been proposed t... Read More

When is working memory important for arithmetic?: the impact of strategy and age (2017)
Journal Article
Cragg, L., Richardson, S., Hubber, P. J., Keeble, S., & Gilmore, C. (in press). When is working memory important for arithmetic?: the impact of strategy and age. PLoS ONE, 12(12), doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0188693. ISSN 1932-6203

Our ability to perform arithmetic relies heavily on working memory, the manipulation and maintenance of information in mind. Previous research has found that in adults, procedural strategies, particularly counting, rely on working memory to a greater... Read More

Direct and indirect influences of executive functions on mathematics achievement (2017)
Journal Article
Cragg, L., Keeble, S., Richardson, S., Roome, H. E., & Gilmore, C. (2017). Direct and indirect influences of executive functions on mathematics achievement. Cognition, 162, doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2017.01.014. ISSN 0010-0277

Achievement in mathematics is predicted by an individual’s domain-specific factual knowledge, procedural skill and conceptual understanding as well as domain-general executive function skills. In this study we investigated the extent to which executi... Read More

The development of stimulus and response interference control in mid-childhood (2015)
Journal Article
Cragg, L. (2015). The development of stimulus and response interference control in mid-childhood. Developmental Psychology, doi:10.1037/dev0000074. ISSN 0012-1649

Interference control, the ability to overcome distraction from irrelevant information, undergoes considerable improvement during childhood yet the mechanisms driving these changes remain unclear. The present study investigated the relative influence... Read More

Differential modulation of the N2 and P3 event-related potentials by response conflict and inhibition (2015)
Journal Article
Groom, M. J., & Cragg, L. (2015). Differential modulation of the N2 and P3 event-related potentials by response conflict and inhibition. Brain and Cognition, 97, doi:10.1016/j.bandc.2015.04.004. ISSN 0278-2626

Background: Developing reliable and specific neural markers of cognitive processes is essential to improve understanding of healthy and atypical brain function. Despite extensive research there remains uncertainty as to whether two electrophysiologic... Read More

Shifting development in mid-childhood: the influence of between-task interference (2009)
Journal Article
Cragg, L., & Nation, K. (2009). Shifting development in mid-childhood: the influence of between-task interference. Developmental Psychology, 45(5), doi:10.1037/a0015360. ISSN 0012-1649

Performance on the task-switching paradigm is greatly affected by the amount of conflict between tasks. Compared to adults, children appear to be particularly influenced by this conflict, suggesting that the ability to resolve interference between ta... Read More

Go or no-go? Developmental improvements in the efficiency of response inhibition in mid-childhood (2008)
Journal Article
Cragg, L., & Nation, K. (2008). Go or no-go? Developmental improvements in the efficiency of response inhibition in mid-childhood. Developmental Science, 11(6), doi:10.1111/j.1467-7687.2008.00730.x. ISSN 1363-755X

This experiment used a modified go/no-go paradigm to investigate the processes by which response inhibition becomes more efficient during mid-childhood. The novel task, which measured trials on which a response was initiated but not completed, was se... Read More

Self-ordered pointing as a test of working memory in typically developing children (2007)
Journal Article
Cragg, L., & Nation, K. (2007). Self-ordered pointing as a test of working memory in typically developing children. Memory, 15(5), ISSN 0965-8211

The self-ordered pointing test (SOPT; Petrides & Milner, 1982) is a test of non-spatial executive working memory requiring the ability to generate and monitor a sequence of responses. Although used with developmental clinical populations there are... Read More