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The functional dendritic cell algorithm: a formal specification with Haskell (2017)
Conference Proceeding
Greensmith, J., & Gale, M. B. (2017). The functional dendritic cell algorithm: a formal specification with Haskell

The Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA) has been described in a number of different ways, sometimes resulting in incorrect implementations. We believe this is due to previous, imprecise attempts to describe the algorithm. The main contribution of this pap... Read More about The functional dendritic cell algorithm: a formal specification with Haskell.

Exploiting the Plasticity of Primary and Secondary Response Mechanisms in Artificial Immune Systems (2016)
Conference Proceeding
Greensmith, J., Jackson, A. M., & Spendlove, I. (2016). Exploiting the Plasticity of Primary and Secondary Response Mechanisms in Artificial Immune Systems. In Proceedings of the 2016 on Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference Companion - GECCO '16 Companionhttps://doi.org/10.1145/2908961.2908962

One of the key properties of the human immune system is to detect the presence of pathogens, and as such there are numberous immune algorithm which perform anomaly detection and pattern recognition. An additional facet of the human immune system is t... Read More about Exploiting the Plasticity of Primary and Secondary Response Mechanisms in Artificial Immune Systems.

Stromal fibroblasts support dendritic cells to maintain IL-23/Th17 responses after exposure to ionizing radiation (2016)
Journal Article
Malecka, A., Wang, O., Shah, S., Sutavani, R. V., Spendlove, I., Ramage, J. M., …Jackson, A. M. (2016). Stromal fibroblasts support dendritic cells to maintain IL-23/Th17 responses after exposure to ionizing radiation. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 100(2), 381-389. https://doi.org/10.1189/jlb.3A1015-474R

Dendritic cell function is modulated by stromal cells, including fibroblasts. Although poorly understood, the signals delivered through this crosstalk substantially alter dendritic cell biology. This is well illustrated with release of TNF-0/IL-113 f... Read More about Stromal fibroblasts support dendritic cells to maintain IL-23/Th17 responses after exposure to ionizing radiation.

Theoretical formulation and analysis of the deterministic dendritic cell algorithm (2013)
Journal Article
Gu, F., Greensmith, J., & Aickelin, U. (2013). Theoretical formulation and analysis of the deterministic dendritic cell algorithm. BioSystems, 111(2), 127-135. doi:10.1016/j.biosystems.2013.01.001

As one of the emerging algorithms in the field of artificial immune systems (AIS), the dendritic cell algorithm (DCA) has been successfully applied to a number of challenging real-world problems. However, one criticism is the lack of a formal definit... Read More about Theoretical formulation and analysis of the deterministic dendritic cell algorithm.

The dendritic cell algorithm for intrusion detection (2012)
Book Chapter
Gu, F., Greensmith, J., & Aickelin, U. (2012). The dendritic cell algorithm for intrusion detection. In P. Lio, & D. Verma (Eds.), Biologically inspired networking and sensing : algorithms and architecturesIGI Global

A beginner's guide to systems simulation in immunology (2012)
Book Chapter
Figueredo, G. P., Siebers, P., Aickelin, U., & Foan, S. (2012). A beginner's guide to systems simulation in immunology. In J. Greensmith, C. A. Coello Coello, N. Krasnogor, P. Liò, G. Nicosia, & M. Pavone (Eds.), Artificial immune systems: 11th International Conference, ICARIS 2012, Taormina, Italy, August 28-31, 2012: proceedingsSpringer

Some common systems modelling and simulation approaches for immune problems are Monte Carlo simulations, system dynamics, discrete-event simulation and agent-based simulation. These methods, however, are still not widely adopted in immunology researc... Read More about A beginner's guide to systems simulation in immunology.

Quiet in class: classification, noise and the dendritic cell algorithm (2011)
Journal Article
Gu, F., Feyereisl, J., Oates, R., Reps, J., Greensmith, J., & Aickelin, U. (2011). Quiet in class: classification, noise and the dendritic cell algorithm. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, 6825, doi:10.1007/978-3-642-22371-6_17

Theoretical analyses of the Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA) have yielded several criticisms about its underlying structure and operation. As a result, several alterations and fixes have been suggested in the literature to correct for these findings. A... Read More about Quiet in class: classification, noise and the dendritic cell algorithm.

Personalizing the theme park: psychometric profiling and physiological monitoring (2011)
Book Chapter
Rennick-Egglestone, S., Whitbrook, A., Leygue, C., Greensmith, J., Walker, B., Benford, S., …Rowland, D. (2011). Personalizing the theme park: psychometric profiling and physiological monitoring. In R. Conejo, J. A. Konstan, J. L. Marzo, & N. Oliver (Eds.), User modeling, adaption, and personalization: 19th international conference, UMAP 2011, Girona, Spain, July 11-15, 2011: proceedingsSpringer. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-22362-4_24

Theme parks are important and complex forms of entertainment, with a broad user-base, and with a substantial economic impact. In this paper, we present a case study of an existing theme park, and use this to motivate two research challenges in relati... Read More about Personalizing the theme park: psychometric profiling and physiological monitoring.

Recommending rides: psychometric profiling in the theme park (2010)
Journal Article
Rennick-Egglestone, S., Whitbrook, A., Greensmith, J., Walker, B., Benford, S., Marshall, J., …Rowland, D. (2010). Recommending rides: psychometric profiling in the theme park. doi:10.1145/1902593.1902600

This paper presents a study intended to inform the design of a recommender system for theme park rides. It examines the efficacy of psychometric testing for profiling theme park visitors, with the aim of establishing a set of measures to be included... Read More about Recommending rides: psychometric profiling in the theme park.

Artificial immune systems (2010)
Book Chapter
Greensmith, J., Whitbrook, A., & Aickelin, U. (2010). Artificial immune systems. In M. Gendreau, & J. Potvin (Eds.), Handbook of metaheuristicsSpringer

The human immune system has numerous properties that make it ripe for exploitation in the computational domain, such as robustness and fault tolerance, and many different algorithms, collectively termed Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), have been ins... Read More about Artificial immune systems.

Performance evaluation of DCA and SRC on a single bot detection (2010)
Journal Article
Al-Hammadi, Y., Aickelin, U., & Greensmith, J. (2010). Performance evaluation of DCA and SRC on a single bot detection

Malicious users try to compromise systems using new techniques. One of the recent techniques used by the attacker is to perform complex distributed attacks such as denial of service and to obtain sensitive data such as password information. These com... Read More about Performance evaluation of DCA and SRC on a single bot detection.

Information Fusion for Anomaly Detection with the Dendritic Cell Algorithm (2009)
Journal Article
Greensmith, J., Aickelin, U., & Tedesco, G. (2010). Information Fusion for Anomaly Detection with the Dendritic Cell Algorithm. Information Fusion, 11(1), 21-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.inffus.2009.04.006

Dendritic cells are antigen presenting cells that provide a vital link between the innate and adaptive immune system, providing the initial detection of pathogenic invaders. Research into this family of cells has revealed that they perform informati... Read More about Information Fusion for Anomaly Detection with the Dendritic Cell Algorithm.

Artificial dendritic cells: multi-faceted perspectives (2009)
Book Chapter
Greensmith, J., & Aickelin, U. (2009). Artificial dendritic cells: multi-faceted perspectives. In A. Bargiela, & W. Pedrycz (Eds.), Human-centric information processing through granular modellingSpringer. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-92916-1_16

Exploration of the dendritic cell algorithm with the duration calculus (2009)
Book Chapter
Gu, F., Greensmith, J., & Aickelin, U. (2009). Exploration of the dendritic cell algorithm with the duration calculus. In J. Timmis, P. S. Andrews, N. D. Owens, U. Aickelin, E. Hart, A. Hone, & A. M. Tyrrell (Eds.), Artificial immune systems: 8th international conference, ICARIS 2009, York, UK, August 9-12, 2009: proceedingsSpringer

As one of the newest members in Articial Immune Systems (AIS), the Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA) has been applied to a range of problems. These applications mainly belong to the eld of anomaly detection. However, real-time detection, a new challeng... Read More about Exploration of the dendritic cell algorithm with the duration calculus.

Further exploration of the Dendritic Cell Algorithm: antigen multiplier and time windows (2008)
Book Chapter
Gu, F., Greensmith, J., & Aickelin, U. (2008). Further exploration of the Dendritic Cell Algorithm: antigen multiplier and time windows. In D. Lee, P. Bentley, & S. Jung (Eds.), Artificial immune systems: 7th international conference, ICARIS 2008, Phuket, Thailand, August 10-13, 2008: proceedingsSpringer

As an immune-inspired algorithm, the Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA), produces promising performance in the field of anomaly detection. This paper presents the application of the DCA to a standard data set, the KDD 99 data set. The results of differen... Read More about Further exploration of the Dendritic Cell Algorithm: antigen multiplier and time windows.

DCA for bot detection (2008)
Book Chapter
Al-Hammadi, Y., Aickelin, U., & Greensmith, J. (2008). DCA for bot detection. In IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, 2008: CEC 2008IEEE

Ensuring the security of computers is a non-trivial task, with many techniques used by malicious users to compromise these systems. In recent years a new threat has emerged in the form of networks of hijacked zombie machines used to perform complex d... Read More about DCA for bot detection.

Immune system approaches to intrusion detection - a review (2007)
Journal Article
Kim, J., Bentley, P., Aickelin, U., Greensmith, J., Tedesco, G., & Twycross, J. (2007). Immune system approaches to intrusion detection - a review. Natural Computing, 6(4), 413-466

The use of artificial immune systems in intrusion detection is an appealing concept for two reasons. Firstly, the human immune system provides the human body with a high level of protection from invading pathogens, in a robust, self-organised and dis... Read More about Immune system approaches to intrusion detection - a review.

Sensing Danger: Innate Immunology for Intrusion Detection (2007)
Journal Article
Aickelin, U., & Greensmith, J. (2007). Sensing Danger: Innate Immunology for Intrusion Detection. Information Security Technical Report, 12(4), 218-227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.istr.2007.10.003

The immune system provides an ideal metaphor for anomaly detection in general and computer security in particular. Based on this idea, artificial immune systems have been used for a number of years for intrusion detection, unfortunately so far with l... Read More about Sensing Danger: Innate Immunology for Intrusion Detection.

Articulation and Clarification of the Dendritic Cell Algorithm (2006)
Book Chapter
Greensmith, J., Aickelin, U., & Twycross, J. (2006). Articulation and Clarification of the Dendritic Cell Algorithm. In Artificial Immune Systems: 5th International Conference, ICARIS 2006, Oeiras, Portugal, September 4-6, 2006. ProceedingsSpringer. https://doi.org/10.1007/11823940_31

The Dendritic Cell algorithm (DCA) is inspired by recent work in innate immunity. In this paper a formal description of the DCA is given. The DCA is described in detail, and its use as an anomaly detector is illustrated within the context of computer... Read More about Articulation and Clarification of the Dendritic Cell Algorithm.

'Malicious Code Execution Detection and Response Immune System inspired by the Danger Theory' (2005)
Conference Proceeding
Kim, J., Greensmith, J., Twycross, J., & Aickelin, U. (2005). 'Malicious Code Execution Detection and Response Immune System inspired by the Danger Theory'

The analysis of system calls is one method employed by anomaly detection systems to recognise malicious code execution. Similarities can be drawn between this process and the behaviour of certain cells belonging to the human immune system, and can be... Read More about 'Malicious Code Execution Detection and Response Immune System inspired by the Danger Theory'.


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