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The prognostic significance of lysosomal protective protein (Cathepsin A) in breast ductal carcinoma in situ (2019)
Journal Article
Toss, M. S., Miligy, I. M., Haj-Ahmad, R., Gorringe, K. L., AlKawaz, A., Mittal, K., …Rakha, E. A. (2019). The prognostic significance of lysosomal protective protein (Cathepsin A) in breast ductal carcinoma in situ. Histopathology, doi:10.1111/his.13835

Background: Cathepsin A (CTSA) is a key regulatory enzyme for galactoside metabolism. Additionally, it has a distinct proteolytic activity and plays a role in tumour progression. CTSA is differentially expressed at the mRNA level between br... Read More

Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) – a potential therapeutic target in hormone sensitive breast cancer in older women (2019)
Journal Article
Syed, B. M., Green, A. R., Morgan, D. A., Ellis, I. O., & Cheung, K. (2019). Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) – a potential therapeutic target in hormone sensitive breast cancer in older women. Cancers, 11(2), 1-17

Background: The role of liver kinase B1 (LKB1), a serine/threonine kinase, has been described in the development of PeutzJagher’s syndrome, where a proportion (~45%) of patients have developed breast cancer in their lifetime. Cell line studies have l... Read More

Expression of Lamin A/C in early-stage breast cancer and its prognostic value (2019)
Journal Article
Alhudiri, I., Nolan, C., Ellis, I., Elzagheid, A., Rakha, E., Green, A., & Chapman, C. (2019). Expression of Lamin A/C in early-stage breast cancer and its prognostic value. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment,

Purpose: Lamins A/C, a major component of the nuclear lamina, plays key roles in maintaining nuclear integrity, regulation of gene expression, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Reduced lamin A/C expression in cancer has been reported to be a sign of... Read More

Overexpression of the cancer stem cell marker CD133 confers a poor prognosis in invasive breast cancer (2018)
Journal Article
Joseph, C., Arshad, M., Kurozomi, S., Althobiti, M., Miligy, I. M., Al-Izzi, S., …Rakha, E. A. (2018). Overexpression of the cancer stem cell marker CD133 confers a poor prognosis in invasive breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment,

Purpose CD133/ prominin 1 is a cancer stem cell marker associated with cancer progression and patient outcome in a variety of solid tumours, but its role in invasive breast cancer (BC) remains obscure. The current study aims to assess the prognostic... Read More

Connexin 43 is an independent predictor of patient outcome in breast cancer patients (2018)
Journal Article
Chasampalioti, M., Green, A. R., Ellis, I. O., Rakha, E. A., Jackson, A. M., Spendlove, I., & Ramage, J. M. (2018). Connexin 43 is an independent predictor of patient outcome in breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, doi:10.1007/s10549-018-5063-9

Purpose Gap junctions are specialized membrane structures that form channels between adjacent cells allowing cell communication. Gap junctions and specifically Connexin 43 (Cx43) are down-regulated in cancer; however, there are contrasting reports... Read More

Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD1) expression in breast cancer (2018)
Journal Article
Craze, M. L., El-Ansari, R., Aleskandarany, M. A., Cheng, K. W., Al-Farsi, L., Masisi, B., …Green, A. R. (2018). Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD1) expression in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment,

Dysregulated cellular metabolism is regarded as one of the hallmarks of cancer with some tumours utilising the glutamine metabolism pathway for their sustained proliferation and survival. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD1) is a key enzyme in glutaminoly... Read More

Legumain is an independent predictor for invasive recurrence in breast ductal carcinoma in situ (2018)
Journal Article
Toss, M. S., Miligy, I. M., Gorringe, K. L., McCaffrey, L., Alkawaz, A., Abidi, A., …Rakha, E. A. (2018). Legumain is an independent predictor for invasive recurrence in breast ductal carcinoma in situ. Modern Pathology, doi:10.1038/s41379-018-0180-x

Legumain is a proteolytic enzyme and playing a role in the regulation of cell proliferation in invasive breast cancer. Studies evaluating its role in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are lacking. Here, we aimed to characterise legumain protein express... Read More

Cyclin E overexpression sensitizes triple negative breast cancer to Wee1 kinase Inhibition (2018)
Journal Article
Chen, X., Low, K. H., Alexander, A., Jiang, Y., Karakas, C., Hess, K. R., …Keyomarsi, K. (2018). Cyclin E overexpression sensitizes triple negative breast cancer to Wee1 kinase Inhibition. Clinical Cancer Research, doi:10.1158/1078-0432.ccr-18-1446. ISSN 1078-0432

Purpose: Poor prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is due to an aggressive phenotype and lack of biomarker-driven targeted therapies. Overexpression of cyclin E and phosphorylated-CDK2 are correlated with poor survival in TNBC patients,... Read More

An end-to-end deep learning histochemical scoring system for breast cancer TMA (2018)
Journal Article
Liu, J., Xu, B., Zheng, C., Gong, Y., Garibaldi, J., Soria, D., …Qiu, G. (2019). An end-to-end deep learning histochemical scoring system for breast cancer TMA. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 38(2), 617-628. doi:10.1109/TMI.2018.2868333

One of the methods for stratifying different molecular classes of breast cancer is the Nottingham prognostic index plus, which uses breast cancer relevant biomarkers to stain tumor tissues prepared on tissue microarray (TMA). To determine the molecul... Read More

Loss-of-function mutations in ATP6AP1 and ATP6AP2 in granular cell tumors (2018)
Journal Article
Pareja, F., Brandes, A. H., Basili, T., Selenica, P., Geyer, F. C., Fan, D., …Reis-Filho, J. S. (2018). Loss-of-function mutations in ATP6AP1 and ATP6AP2 in granular cell tumors. Nature Communications, 9, doi:10.1038/s41467-018-05886-y. ISSN 2041-1723

Granular cell tumors (GCTs) are rare tumors that can arise in multiple anatomical locations, and are characterized by abundant intracytoplasmic granules. The genetic drivers of GCTs are currently unknown. Here, we apply whole-exome sequencing and tar... Read More

The role of PIP5K1α/pAKT and targeted inhibition of growth of subtypes of breast cancer using PIP5K1α inhibitor (2018)
Journal Article
Sarwar, M., Syed Khaja, A. S., Aleskandarany, M., Karlsson, R., Althobiti, M., Ødum, N., …Persson, J. L. (2018). The role of PIP5K1α/pAKT and targeted inhibition of growth of subtypes of breast cancer using PIP5K1α inhibitor. Oncogene, doi:10.1038/s41388-018-0438-2

Despite recent improvement in adjuvant therapies, triple-negative, and ER+ subtypes of breast cancer (BC) with metastatic potentials remain the leading cause of BC-related deaths. We investigated the role of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase... Read More

The spectrum of triple-negative breast disease: high- and low-grade lesions (2018)
Journal Article
Geyer, F. C., Pareja, F., Weigelt, B., Rakha, E., Ellis, I. O., Schnitt, S. J., & Reis-Filho, J. S. (2018). The spectrum of triple-negative breast disease: high- and low-grade lesions. American Journal of Pathology, 187(10), 2139-2151. doi:10.1016/j.ajpath.2017.03.016

Triple-negative breast cancer is viewed clinically as an aggressive subgroup of breast cancer. In fact, most triple-negative breast cancers are poor-prognosis tumors with a complex genomic landscape. However, triple-negative disease is vastly heterog... Read More

Impact of breast cancer grade discordance on prediction of outcome (2018)
Journal Article
Rakha, E. A., Aleskandarany, M. A., Toss, M. S., Mongan, N., El-Sayed, M. E., Green, A. R., …Dalton, L. W. (in press). Impact of breast cancer grade discordance on prediction of outcome. Histopathology, doi:10.1111/his.13709

BACKGROUND: Histological grade is an independent prognostic variable in breast cancer (BC). Previous concordance studies of BC grade have reported moderate levels of agreement; a typical finding in morphological assessment of biological variables. Th... Read More

Thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) is an independent risk stratifier for breast ductal carcinoma in situ (2018)
Journal Article
Miligy, I., Gorringe, K. L., Toss, M. S., Al-Kawaz, A., Simpson, P., Diez-Rogriguez, M., …Rakha, E. (2018). Thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) is an independent risk stratifier for breast ductal carcinoma in situ. Modern Pathology, doi:10.1038/s41379-018-0086-7

Current clinicopathological parameters are useful predictors of breast ductal carcinoma in situ behaviour, but they are insufficient to define high risk patients for disease progression precisely. Thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) is a key play... Read More