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Low calpain-9 is associated with adverse disease-specific survival following endocrine therapy in breast cancer (2014)
Journal Article
Davis, J., Martin, S. G., Patel, P. M., Green, A. R., Rakha, E. A., Ellis, I. O., & Storr, S. J. (2014). Low calpain-9 is associated with adverse disease-specific survival following endocrine therapy in breast cancer. BMC Cancer, 14(1), doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-995

Background The calpains are intracellular cysteine proteases that function in a variety of important cellular functions, including signalling, motility, apoptosis and survival. In breast cancer high calpain-1 and calpain-2 expression has been asso... Read More about Low calpain-9 is associated with adverse disease-specific survival following endocrine therapy in breast cancer.

High-grade encapsulated papillary carcinoma of the breast: an under-recognized entity (2014)
Journal Article
Rakha, E. A., Varga, Z., Elsheik, S., & Ellis, I. O. (2015). High-grade encapsulated papillary carcinoma of the breast: an under-recognized entity. Histopathology, 66(5), 740-746. doi:10.1111/his.12591

Aims Encapsulated papillary carcinoma (EPC) is a recognized special type of breast carcinoma. Despite compelling evidence indicating its invasive nature, although not of a conventional form, the current consensus is to manage EPC as an in‐situ disea... Read More about High-grade encapsulated papillary carcinoma of the breast: an under-recognized entity.

Biological and clinical significance of PARP1 protein expression in breast cancer (2014)
Journal Article
Green, A. R., Caracappa, D., Benhasouna, A. A., Alshareeda, A., Nolan, C. C., Macmillan, R. D., …Rakha, E. A. (2015). Biological and clinical significance of PARP1 protein expression in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 149(2), 353-362. doi:10.1007/s10549-014-3230-1

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) is a key facilitator of DNA repair. PARP inhibitors have gained recent attention as promising therapeutic agents for the treatment of solid tumours including breast cancer (BC). However, the biological and clinic... Read More about Biological and clinical significance of PARP1 protein expression in breast cancer.

Updated UK recommendations for HER2 assessment in breast cancer (2014)
Journal Article
Rakha, E. A., Pinder, S. E., Bartlett, J. M., Ibrahim, M., Starczynski, J., Carder, P. J., …Ellis, I. O. (2015). Updated UK recommendations for HER2 assessment in breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 68(2), 93-99. doi:10.1136/jclinpath-2014-202571

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression is present in approximately 15% of early invasive breast cancers, and is an important predictive and prognostic marker. The substantial benefits achieved with anti-HER2 targeted therapies... Read More about Updated UK recommendations for HER2 assessment in breast cancer.

Inclusion of KI67 significantly improves performance of the PREDICT prognostication and prediction model for early breast cancer (2014)
Journal Article
Wishart, G. C., Rakha, E., Green, A., Ellis, I., Ali, H. R., Provenzano, E., …Pharoah, P. D. (2014). Inclusion of KI67 significantly improves performance of the PREDICT prognostication and prediction model for early breast cancer. BMC Cancer, 14(1), doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-908

Background PREDICT (http://www.predict.nhs.uk) is a prognostication and treatment benefit tool for early breast cancer (EBC). The aim of this study was to incorporate the prognostic effect of KI67 status in a new version (v3), and compare performa... Read More about Inclusion of KI67 significantly improves performance of the PREDICT prognostication and prediction model for early breast cancer.

Prognostic significance of lymphatic invasion in lymph node-positive breast carcinoma: findings from a large case series with long-term follow-up using immunohistochemical endothelial marker (2014)
Journal Article
Mohammed, R. A., Menon, S., Martin, S. G., Green, A. R., Paish, E. C., & Ellis, I. O. (2014). Prognostic significance of lymphatic invasion in lymph node-positive breast carcinoma: findings from a large case series with long-term follow-up using immunohistochemical endothelial marker. Modern Pathology, 27(12), 1568-1577. doi:10.1038/modpathol.2014.60

Prognostic factors in metaplastic carcinoma of the breast: a multi-institutional study (2014)
Journal Article
Rakha, E. A., Tan, P. H., Varga, Z., Tse, G. M., Shaaban, A. M., Climent, F., …Chan, T. (2015). Prognostic factors in metaplastic carcinoma of the breast: a multi-institutional study. British Journal of Cancer, 112(2), 283-289. doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.592

Background: Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) is a rare type of breast cancer that has basal-like characteristics and is perceived to have poorer prognosis when compared with conventional no specific type/ductal carcinomas (ductal/NST). However, cu... Read More about Prognostic factors in metaplastic carcinoma of the breast: a multi-institutional study.

Clinicopathological significance of ATM-Chk2 expression in sporadic breast cancers: a comprehensive analysis in large cohorts (2014)
Journal Article
Abdel-Fatah, T. M., Arora, A., Alsubhi, N., Agarwal, D., Moseley, P. M., Perry, C., …Madhusudan, S. (2014). Clinicopathological significance of ATM-Chk2 expression in sporadic breast cancers: a comprehensive analysis in large cohorts. Neoplasia, 16(11), 982-991. doi:10.1016/j.neo.2014.09.009

ATM-Chk2 network is critical for genomic stability, and its deregulation may influence breast cancer pathogenesis. We investigated ATM and Chk2 protein levels in two cohorts [cohort 1 (n = 1650) and cohort 2 (n = 252)]. ATM and Chk2 mRNA expression w... Read More about Clinicopathological significance of ATM-Chk2 expression in sporadic breast cancers: a comprehensive analysis in large cohorts.

Untangling the ATR-CHEK1 network for prognostication, prediction and therapeutic target validation in breast cancer (2014)
Journal Article
Abdel-Fatah, T. M., Middleton, F. K., Arora, A., Agarwal, D., Chen, T., Moseley, P. M., …Madhusudan, S. (2015). Untangling the ATR-CHEK1 network for prognostication, prediction and therapeutic target validation in breast cancer. Molecular Oncology, 9(3), 569-585. doi:10.1016/j.molonc.2014.10.013

ATR‐CHEK1 signalling is critical for genomic stability. ATR‐CHEK1 signalling may be deregulated in breast cancer and have prognostic, predictive and therapeutic significance. We investigated ATR, CHEK1 and phosphorylated CHEK1 Ser345 protein (pCHEK1)... Read More about Untangling the ATR-CHEK1 network for prognostication, prediction and therapeutic target validation in breast cancer.

Involvement of metformin and AMPK in the radioresponse and prognosis of luminal versus basal-like breast cancer treated with radiotherapy (2014)
Journal Article
Zhang, Y., Storr, S. J., Johnson, K., Green, A. R., Rakha, E. A., Ellis, I. O., …Martin, S. G. (2014). Involvement of metformin and AMPK in the radioresponse and prognosis of luminal versus basal-like breast cancer treated with radiotherapy. Oncotarget, 5(24), doi:10.18632/oncotarget.2683

Metformin is under evaluation as a potential anticancer agent. Expression of total and phospho(Thr172)-adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase-α (AMPKα and pAMPKα(Thr172) respectively), a main metformin target, was examined in radiotherapy treated b... Read More about Involvement of metformin and AMPK in the radioresponse and prognosis of luminal versus basal-like breast cancer treated with radiotherapy.

Anti-nicastrin monoclonal antibodies elicit pleiotropic anti-tumour pharmacological effects in invasive breast cancer cells (2014)
Journal Article
Filipović, A., Lombardo, Y., Fronato, M., Abrahams, J., Aboagye, E., Nguyen, Q., …Coombes, R. C. (2014). Anti-nicastrin monoclonal antibodies elicit pleiotropic anti-tumour pharmacological effects in invasive breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 148(2), 455-462. doi:10.1007/s10549-014-3119-z

The goal of targeted cancer therapies is to specifically block oncogenic signalling, thus maximising efficacy, while reducing side-effects to patients. The gamma-secretase (GS) complex is an attractive therapeutic target in haematological malignancie... Read More about Anti-nicastrin monoclonal antibodies elicit pleiotropic anti-tumour pharmacological effects in invasive breast cancer cells.

Is there a role for base excision repair in estrogen/estrogen receptor-driven breast cancers? (2014)
Journal Article
Abdel-Fatah, T. M., Perry, C., Arora, A., Thompson, N., Doherty, R., Moseley, P. M., …Madhusudan, S. (2014). Is there a role for base excision repair in estrogen/estrogen receptor-driven breast cancers?. Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, 21(16), 2262-2268. doi:10.1089/ars.2014.6077

Estrogen and estrogen metabolite-induced reactive oxygen species generation can promote oxidative DNA base damage. If unrepaired, base damaging lesions could accelerate mutagenesis, leading to a “mutator phenotype” characterized by aggressive behavio... Read More about Is there a role for base excision repair in estrogen/estrogen receptor-driven breast cancers?.

The TRAIL system is over-expressed in breast cancer and FLIP a marker of good prognosis (2014)
Journal Article
Ullenhag, G. J., Al-Attar, A., Mukherjee, A., Green, A. R., Ellis, I. O., & Durrant, L. G. (2015). The TRAIL system is over-expressed in breast cancer and FLIP a marker of good prognosis. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology, 141(3), 505-514. doi:10.1007/s00432-014-1822-0

Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. The tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) pathway transmits apoptotic signals. Novel anticancer agents that activate this system are in clinical development, in... Read More about The TRAIL system is over-expressed in breast cancer and FLIP a marker of good prognosis.

Targeting BRCA1-BER deficient breast cancer by ATM or DNA-PKcs blockade either alone or in combination with cisplatin for personalized therapy (2014)
Journal Article
Albarakati, N., Abdel-Fatah, T. M., Doherty, R., Russell, R., Agarwal, D., Moseley, P., …Madhusudan, S. (2015). Targeting BRCA1-BER deficient breast cancer by ATM or DNA-PKcs blockade either alone or in combination with cisplatin for personalized therapy. Molecular Oncology, 9(1), 204-217. doi:10.1016/j.molonc.2014.08.001

BRCA1, a key factor in homologous recombination (HR) repair may also regulate base excision repair (BER). Targeting BRCA1‐BER deficient cells by blockade of ATM and DNA‐PKcs could be a promising strategy in breast cancer. We investigated BRCA1, XRCC1... Read More about Targeting BRCA1-BER deficient breast cancer by ATM or DNA-PKcs blockade either alone or in combination with cisplatin for personalized therapy.

Phosphorylation of activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2) within the activation domain is a key determinant of sensitivity to tamoxifen in breast cancer (2014)
Journal Article
Rudraraju, B., Droog, M., Abdel-Fatah, T. M., Zwart, W., Giannoudis, A., Malki, M. I., …Palmieri, C. (2014). Phosphorylation of activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2) within the activation domain is a key determinant of sensitivity to tamoxifen in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 147(2), 295-309. doi:10.1007/s10549-014-3098-0

ERK1/2 is related to oestrogen receptor and predicts outcome in hormone-treated breast cancer (2014)
Journal Article
Jerjees, D. A., Alabdullah, M., Alkaabi, M., Abduljabbar, R., Muftah, A., Nolan, C., …Rakha, E. A. (2014). ERK1/2 is related to oestrogen receptor and predicts outcome in hormone-treated breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 147(1), (25-37). doi:10.1007/s10549-014-3066-8. ISSN 0167-6806

The extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 is one of the members of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). MAPKs are transduction proteins that play a role in controlling diverse cellular functions including proliferation and survival. In b... Read More about ERK1/2 is related to oestrogen receptor and predicts outcome in hormone-treated breast cancer.

Biological characteristics and clinical outcome of triple negative primary breast cancer in older women - comparison with their younger counterparts. (2014)
Journal Article
Syed, B. M., Green, A. R., Nolan, C. C., Morgan, D. A., Ellis, I. O., & Cheung, K. (2014). Biological characteristics and clinical outcome of triple negative primary breast cancer in older women - comparison with their younger counterparts. PLoS ONE, 9(7), doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0100573. ISSN 1932-6203

Triple negative (ER, PgR and HER2 negative) breast cancers (TNBCs) are often considered as a poor prognostic phenotype. There is dearth of evidence showing the prevalence and biological behaviour of TNBCs in older women. This study aimed to analyse t... Read More about Biological characteristics and clinical outcome of triple negative primary breast cancer in older women - comparison with their younger counterparts..

Adverse prognostic and predictive significance of low DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) expression in early-stage breast cancers (2014)
Journal Article
Abdel-Fatah, T., Arora, A., Agarwal, D., Moseley, P., Perry, C., Thompson, N., …Madhusudan, S. (2014). Adverse prognostic and predictive significance of low DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) expression in early-stage breast cancers. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 146(2), 309-320. doi:10.1007/s10549-014-3035-2

DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), a serine threonine kinase belonging to the PIKK family (phosphoinositide 3-kinase-like-family of protein kinase), is a critical component of the non-homologous end-joining pathway required fo... Read More about Adverse prognostic and predictive significance of low DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) expression in early-stage breast cancers.

Therapeutic targeting of integrin αvβ6 in breast cancer (2014)
Journal Article
Moore, K. M., Thomas, G. J., Duffy, S. W., Warwick, J., Gabe, R., Chou, P., …Marshall, J. F. (2014). Therapeutic targeting of integrin αvβ6 in breast cancer. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 106(8), 1-14. doi:10.1093/jnci/dju169

Background Integrin αvβ6 promotes migration, invasion, and survival of cancer cells; however, the relevance and role of αvβ6 has yet to be elucidated in breast cancer. Methods Protein expression of integrin subunit beta6 (β6) was measured in... Read More about Therapeutic targeting of integrin αvβ6 in breast cancer.