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An investigation into the use of CFD to model the co-firing of Jatropha curcas seed cake with coal (2018)
Journal Article
Madanayake, B. N., Gan, S., Eastwick, C., & Ng, H. K. (2018). An investigation into the use of CFD to model the co-firing of Jatropha curcas seed cake with coal. International Journal of Green Energy, (1-17). doi:10.1080/15435075.2018.1525559. ISSN 1543-5075

Jatropha curcas seed cake is a potential candidate for co-firing with coal. Combustion modelling using Ansys Fluent 14.0 was carried out to assess the combustion and co-firing characteristics of untorrefied and torrefied Jatropha curcas seed cake. Th... Read More

Development of aircraft electric starter-generator system based-on active rectification technology (2018)
Journal Article
Bozhko, S., Yang, T., Le Peuvedic, J., Arumugam, P., Degano, M., La Rocca, A., …Wheeler, P. (2018). Development of aircraft electric starter-generator system based-on active rectification technology. IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification, doi:10.1109/TTE.2018.2863031

More-electric aircraft (MEA) has become a dominant trend for modern aircraft. On-board MEA, many functions, which are conventionally driven by pneumatic and hydraulic power, are replaced with electrical subsystems. Starting aircraft engines with an e... Read More

Applicability of mechanical tests for biomass pellet characterisation for bioenergy applications (2018)
Journal Article
Williams, O., Taylor, S., Lester, E., Kingman, S., Giddings, D., & Eastwick, C. (2018). Applicability of mechanical tests for biomass pellet characterisation for bioenergy applications. Materials, 11(8), doi:10.3390/ma11081329. ISSN 1996-1944

In this paper, the applicability of mechanical tests for biomass pellet characterisation was investigated. Pellet durability, quasi-static (low strain rate), and dynamic (high strain rate) mechanical tests were applied to mixed wood, eucalyptus, sunf... Read More

A CFD and experimental investigation into a non-intrusive method for measuring cooling air mass flow rate through a synchronous generator (2018)
Conference Proceeding
Bersch, K., Connor, P. H., Eastwick, C. N., & Galea, M. (2018). A CFD and experimental investigation into a non-intrusive method for measuring cooling air mass flow rate through a synchronous generator

This paper presents a detailed methodology for a non-intrusive measurement of cooling air mass flow rate that enables an overall machine evaluation. This approach enables the simultaneous measurement of air mass flow with shaft torque at differing op... Read More

Fluid flow and heat transfer analysis of TEFC machine end regions using more realistic end-winding geometry (2018)
Conference Proceeding
La Rocca, S., Pickering, S., Eastwick, C. N., Gerada, C., & Rönnberg, K. (2018). Fluid flow and heat transfer analysis of TEFC machine end regions using more realistic end-winding geometry

In this paper a typical small low voltage TEFC motor (output power ~10 kW) has been studied using computational fluid dynamics. The complexity of the end winding geometries, often consisting of several insulated copper strands bound together, provide... Read More

Studies on combustion behaviours of single biomass particles using a visualization method (2017)
Journal Article
Shan, L., Kong, M., Bennet, T. D., Sarroza, A. C., Eastwick, C., Sun, D., …Liu, H. (2018). Studies on combustion behaviours of single biomass particles using a visualization method. Biomass and Bioenergy, 109, doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2017.12.008. ISSN 0961-9534

Combustion behaviours of single particles (125–150 μm) of eucalyptus, pine and olive residue were investigated by means of a transparent visual drop-tube furnace, electrically heated to 1073 K, and a high-speed camera coupling with a long distance mi... Read More

Benefits of dry comminution of biomass pellets in a knife mill (2017)
Journal Article
Williams, O., Lester, E., Kingman, S., Giddings, D., Lormor, S., & Eastwick, C. (in press). Benefits of dry comminution of biomass pellets in a knife mill. Biosystems Engineering, 160, doi:10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.05.011. ISSN 1537-5110

The potential benefits of dry comminution in a knife mill for a diverse range of biomass 6 pellets are explored. The impact of dry comminution on energy consumption, particle size and shape, 7 is examined as well as the link between milling and mecha... Read More

CFD optimisation of the thermal design for a vented electrical machine (2017)
Conference Proceeding
Bersch, K., Connor, P. H., Eastwick, C. N., Galea, M., & Rolston, R. (2017). CFD optimisation of the thermal design for a vented electrical machine. In 2017 IEEE Workshop on Electrical Machines Design, Control and Diagnosis (WEMDCD)doi:10.1109/WEMDCD.2017.7947721

Optimisation algorithms hold the potential to dramatically reduce computational time whilst ensuring the optimal solution is found. Within this paper, the feasibility of using this novel approach on complex 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics models, wh... Read More

Mechanical degradation of biomass wood pellets during long term stockpile storage (2017)
Journal Article
Graham, S., Eastwick, C., Snape, C., & Quick, W. (2017). Mechanical degradation of biomass wood pellets during long term stockpile storage. Fuel Processing Technology, 160, doi:10.1016/j.fuproc.2017.02.017. ISSN 0378-3820

This paper quantifies and assesses the mechanical degradation of white wood and steam exploded wood pellets in indoor and outdoor stockpile storage over a twenty-one month period in the UK. The indoor stored steam exploded wood pellets on the surface... Read More

Overcoming the caking phenomenon in olive mill wastes (2017)
Journal Article
Williams, O., Eastwick, C., Kingman, S., Giddings, D., Lormor, S., & Lester, E. (2017). Overcoming the caking phenomenon in olive mill wastes. Industrial Crops and Products, 101, doi:10.1016/j.indcrop.2017.02.036. ISSN 0926-6690

The use of olive mill wastes (orujillo) within coal fired power stations in the UK has led to unexpected difficulties with material caking within the fuel handling plant. This study replicated orujillo caking on a laboratory scale using a planetary b... Read More

Characterising pulverised fuel ignition in a visual drop tube furnace by use of a high-speed imaging technique (2016)
Journal Article
Sarroza, A. C., Bennet, T. D., Eastwick, C., & Liu, H. (in press). Characterising pulverised fuel ignition in a visual drop tube furnace by use of a high-speed imaging technique. Fuel Processing Technology, 157, doi:10.1016/j.fuproc.2016.11.002. ISSN 0378-3820

This study investigates the ignition characteristics of pulverised coal, biomass and co-firing by use of a visual drop tube furnace (VDTF) and a high speed imaging technique. Three coals (anthracite, a bituminous coal and a lignite), four biomasses (... Read More

Stator and rotor vent modelling in a MVA rated synchronous machine (2016)
Conference Proceeding
Connor, P. H., Eastwick, C., Pickering, S., Gerada, C., & Rolston, R. (in press). Stator and rotor vent modelling in a MVA rated synchronous machine. In 2016 XXII International Conference on Electrical Machines (ICEM)doi:10.1109/ICELMACH.2016.7732583

An investigation into the solution dependence of a conjugate heat transfer computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a synchronous generator, with respect to meshing, has been carried out. Utilising CFD as a tool for investigating the airflow and t... Read More

Thermal management of a high speed permanent magnet machine for an aeroengine (2016)
Conference Proceeding
La Rocca, A., Xu, Z., Arumugam, P., Pickering, S., Eastwick, C., Gerada, C., & Bozhko, S. (2016). Thermal management of a high speed permanent magnet machine for an aeroengine

The paper describes the mechanical and thermal design of a high speed, high power density synchronous permanent magnet machine for an aero engine starter generator system with a power rating of 150 kW and maximum speed of 32,000 rpm. As both mechanic... Read More

Influence of mill type on densified biomass comminution (2016)
Journal Article
Williams, O., Newbolt, G., Eastwick, C., Kingman, S. W., Giddings, D., Lormor, S., & Lester, E. (2016). Influence of mill type on densified biomass comminution. Applied Energy, 182, doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.08.111. ISSN 0306-2619

The impact of different mill fracture mechanisms were examined for a wide range of densified biomass pellets to provide a comprehensive analysis of biomass milling behaviour for pulverised fuel combustion. The milling behaviour of 7 woody, herbaceous... Read More

Thermochemical and structural changes in Jatropha curcas seed cake during torrefaction for its use as coal co-firing feedstock (2016)
Journal Article
Madanayakea, B. N., Gan, S., Eastwick, C., & Ng, H. K. (2016). Thermochemical and structural changes in Jatropha curcas seed cake during torrefaction for its use as coal co-firing feedstock. Energy, 100, doi:10.1016/j.energy.2016.01.097. ISSN 0360-5442

Jatropha curcas seed cake is a viable feedstock for co-firing with coal as it has the advantages of being renewable, carbon-neutral and sourced from a versatile plant. Torrefaction, a mild pyrolysis treatment by heating in a N2 atmosphere, was invest... Read More

Leaching as a pretreatment process to complement torrefaction in improving co-firing characteristics of Jatropha curcas seed cake (2015)
Journal Article
Madanayake, B. N., Gan, S., Eastwick, C., & Ng, H. K. (2016). Leaching as a pretreatment process to complement torrefaction in improving co-firing characteristics of Jatropha curcas seed cake. Waste and Biomass Valorization, 7(3), doi:10.1007/s12649-015-9467-z. ISSN 1877-2641

The presence of certain inorganic elements in biomass causes issues such as slagging, fouling and corrosion when co-firing with coal for power generation. In this work, the efficacy of leaching to remove these elements from Jatropha curcas seed cake... Read More