Research Repository

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Characterisation and modeling of complex geometries using TexGen (2018)
Conference Proceeding
Brown, L. P., Endruweit, A., Long, A. C., & Jones, I. A. (2018). Characterisation and modeling of complex geometries using TexGen. doi:10.1088/1757-899X/406/1/012024

TexGen is open source software developed at the University of Nottingham for the geometric 3D modelling of textiles and textile composites. It has a large number of users worldwide and underpins a significant number of research publications. Whil... Read More

Optimisation of local in-plane constraining forces in double diaphragm forming (2018)
Journal Article
Chen, S., McGregor, O., Harper, L., Endruweit, A., & Warrior, N. (in press). Optimisation of local in-plane constraining forces in double diaphragm forming. Composite Structures, doi:10.1016/j.compstruct.2018.06.062. ISSN 0263-8223

Rigid blocks (risers) were introduced in the double diaphragm forming (DDF) process to change the local in-plane strain distribution in the diaphragms, aimed at reducing wrinkling defects in the production of fabric preforms. A two-step optimisation... Read More

Frictional behaviour of non-crimp fabrics (NCFs) in contact with a forming tool (2018)
Journal Article
Avgoulas, E. I., Mulvihill, D. M., Endruweit, A., Sutcliffe, M. P., Warrior, N. A., De Focatiis, D. S., & Long, A. C. (2018). Frictional behaviour of non-crimp fabrics (NCFs) in contact with a forming tool. Tribology International, 121, 71-77. doi:10.1016/j.triboint.2018.01.026

Microscopic observation and analysis are used to examine the role that contact conditions play in determining the frictional behaviour of non-crimp fabrics (NCFs). The true fibre contact length is measured over a range of normal pressures. For the NC... Read More

Influence of the micro-structure on saturated transverse flow in fibre arrays (2018)
Journal Article
Gommer, F., Endruweit, A., & Long, A. C. (2018). Influence of the micro-structure on saturated transverse flow in fibre arrays. Journal of Composite Materials, 52(18), (2463-2475). doi:10.1177/0021998317747954. ISSN 0021-9983

This study analyses the influence of the random filament arrangement in fibre bundles on the resin flow behaviour. Transverse steady-state resin flow which occurs behind a liquid resin flow front was simulated numerically through statistically equiva... Read More

Effect of yarn cross-sectional shape on resin flow through inter-yarn gaps in textile reinforcements (2017)
Journal Article
Endruweit, A., Zeng, X., Matveev, M. Y., & Long, A. C. (2018). Effect of yarn cross-sectional shape on resin flow through inter-yarn gaps in textile reinforcements. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 104, doi:10.1016/j.compositesa.2017.10.020. ISSN 1359-835X

Axial flow through gaps between aligned straight yarns with realistic cross-sectional shapes, described by power-ellipses, was analysed numerically. At a given fibre volume fraction, equivalent gap permeabilities have a maximum at minimum size of elo... Read More

“BAM”: a collaborative R&D project for the development of a simulation based solution for the design and manufacture of 3D woven composites (2017)
Conference Proceeding
Said, R., Müller, S., de Luca, P., Thompson, A., El Said, B., Hallett, S., …Potluri, P. (2017). “BAM”: a collaborative R&D project for the development of a simulation based solution for the design and manufacture of 3D woven composites

Breakthrough Aerospace Materials (BAM) is a collaborative R&D project based in the UK [1]; led by industry and co-funded by the British Government via the Innovate-UK under its Aerospace Technology Institute (ATI) R&T Programme. The overall objective... Read More

Double diaphragm forming simulation for complex composite structures (2017)
Journal Article
Chen, S., McGregor, O., Endruweit, A., Elsmore, M., De Focatiis, D., Harper, L., & Warrior, N. (in press). Double diaphragm forming simulation for complex composite structures. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 95, doi:10.1016/j.compositesa.2017.01.017. ISSN 1359-835X

A finite element (FE) model has been developed to simulate the double diaphragm forming (DDF) process, to identify potential defects when forming complex 3D preforms from 2D biaxial non-crimp fabric plies. Three different metrics have been introduced... Read More

Defect formation during preforming of a bi-axial non-crimp fabric with a pillar stitch pattern (2016)
Journal Article
Chen, S., McGregor, O., Harper, L., Endruweit, A., & Warrior, N. (2016). Defect formation during preforming of a bi-axial non-crimp fabric with a pillar stitch pattern. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 91, doi:10.1016/j.compositesa.2016.09.016. ISSN 1359-835X

To capture the asymmetrical shear behaviour of a bi-axial NCF with a pillar stitch, a non-orthogonal constitutive model was developed and implemented in finite element forming simulations. Preforming experiments indicate that the local distribution o... Read More

Quantification of micro-scale variability in fibre bundles (2016)
Journal Article
Gommer, F., Endruweit, A., & Long, A. (in press). Quantification of micro-scale variability in fibre bundles. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 87, doi:10.1016/j.compositesa.2016.04.019. ISSN 1359-835X

Local variations in the random filament arrangement in carbon fibre bundles were determined by optical microscopy and automated image analysis. Successive steps of abrading, polishing and acquiring micro¬graphs of the sample surface made it feasible... Read More

Formability optimisation of fabric preforms by controlling material draw-in through in-plane constraints (2015)
Journal Article
Chen, S., Harper, L., Endruweit, A., & Warrior, N. (2015). Formability optimisation of fabric preforms by controlling material draw-in through in-plane constraints. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 76, doi:10.1016/j.compositesa.2015.05.006. ISSN 1359-835X

A genetic algorithm is coupled with a finite element model to optimise the arrangement of constraints for a composite press-forming study. A series of springs are used to locally apply in-plane tension through clamps to the fibre preform to control m... Read More

Numerical prediction of in-plane permeability for multilayer woven fabrics with manufacture-induced deformation (2015)
Journal Article
Zeng, X., Endruweit, A., Brown, L. P., & Long, A. C. (2015). Numerical prediction of in-plane permeability for multilayer woven fabrics with manufacture-induced deformation. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 77, 266-274. doi:10.1016/j.compositesa.2015.03.027

A unit cell based Computational Fluid Dynamics model is presented for predicting permeability of multilayer fabric structures. In Liquid Composites Moulding processes, fabric lay-ups undergo significant manufacture-induced deformation, combining comp... Read More

Inter-ply stitching optimisation of highly drapeable multi-ply preforms (2015)
Journal Article
Chen, S., Endruweit, A., Harper, L., & Warrior, N. (2015). Inter-ply stitching optimisation of highly drapeable multi-ply preforms. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 71, doi:10.1016/j.compositesa.2015.01.016. ISSN 1359-835X

An efficient finite element model has been developed in Abaqus/Explicit to solve highly non-linear fabric forming problems, using a non-orthogonal constitutive relation and membrane elements to model bi-axial fabrics. 1D cable-spring elements have be... Read More

Through-thickness permeability study of orthogonal and angle-interlock woven fabrics (2014)
Journal Article
Xiao, X., Endruweit, A., Zeng, X., Hu, J., & Long, A. C. (2015). Through-thickness permeability study of orthogonal and angle-interlock woven fabrics. Journal of Materials Science, 50(3), doi:10.1007/s10853-014-8683-4. ISSN 0022-2461

Three-dimensional (3D) woven textiles, including orthogonal and angle-interlock woven fabrics, exhibit high inter-laminar strength in addition to good in-plane mechanical properties and are particularly suitable for lightweight structural application... Read More

Effect of specimen history on structure and in-plane permeability of woven fabrics (2014)
Journal Article
Endruweit, A., Zeng, X., & Long, A. C. (2015). Effect of specimen history on structure and in-plane permeability of woven fabrics. Journal of Composite Materials, 49(13), doi:10.1177/0021998314536070. ISSN 0021-9983

Before being processed into composites, reinforcement fabrics may undergo repeated involuntary deformation, the complete sequence of which is here referred to as specimen history. To mimic its effect, fabric specimens were subjected to sequences of d... Read More

Analysis of filament arrangements and generation of statistically equivalent composite micro-structures (2014)
Journal Article
Gommer, F., Endruweit, A., & Long, A. C. (2014). Analysis of filament arrangements and generation of statistically equivalent composite micro-structures. Composites Science and Technology, 99, doi:10.1016/j.compscitech.2014.05.008. ISSN 0266-3538

An efficient method to describe and quantify the filament arrangement in fibre bundles based on the analysis of micrographs was developed. Quantitative measurement of relative filament positions indicated that the initially random arrangement of fila... Read More

Advanced geometry modelling of 3D woven reinforcements in polymer composites: processing and performance analysis (2012)
Conference Proceeding
Zeng, X., Brown, L. P., Endruweit, A., & Long, A. C. (2012). Advanced geometry modelling of 3D woven reinforcements in polymer composites: processing and performance analysis

Numerical methods have become increasingly effective tools for analysis and design of composite materials. This study investigates how the inclusion of geometrical variations in modelling 3D woven fabrics affects the accuracy of numerical predictions... Read More