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Power Electronics Converters for the Internet of Energy: A Review

Granata, Samuele; Di Benedetto, Marco; Terlizzi, Cristina; Leuzzi, Riccardo; Bifaretti, Stefano; Zanchetta, Pericle

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Samuele Granata

Marco Di Benedetto

Cristina Terlizzi

Riccardo Leuzzi

Stefano Bifaretti


This paper presents a comprehensive review of multi-port power electronics converters used for application in AC, DC, or hybrid distribution systems in an Internet of Energy scenario. In particular, multi-port solid-state transformer (SST) topologies have been addressed and classified according to their isolation capabilities and their conversion stages configurations. Non-conventional configurations have been considered. A comparison of the most relevant features and design specifications between popular topologies has been provided through a comprehensive and effective table. Potential benefits of SSTs in distribution applications have been highlighted even with reference to a network active nodes usage. This review also highlights standards and technical regulations in force for connecting SSTs to the electrical distribution system. Finally, two case studies of multi-port topologies have been presented and discussed. The first one is an isolated multi-port bidirectional dual active bridge DC-DC converter useful in fast-charging applications. The second case of study deals with a three-port AC-AC multi-level power converter in H-Bridge configuration able to replicate a network active node and capable of routing and controlling energy under different operating conditions.


Granata, S., Di Benedetto, M., Terlizzi, C., Leuzzi, R., Bifaretti, S., & Zanchetta, P. (2022). Power Electronics Converters for the Internet of Energy: A Review. Energies, 15(7), Article 2604.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Mar 31, 2022
Online Publication Date Apr 2, 2022
Publication Date 2022-04
Deposit Date Jul 7, 2022
Publicly Available Date Jul 7, 2022
Journal Energies
Electronic ISSN 1996-1073
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 15
Issue 7
Article Number 2604
Keywords Energy (miscellaneous); Energy Engineering and Power Technology; Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment; Electrical and Electronic Engineering; Control and Optimization; Engineering (miscellaneous)
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