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Gemini pyridinium amphiphiles for the synthesis and stabilization of gold nanoparticles for drug delivery


Maria E. Alea-Reyes

Asensio Gonzalez

Ana C. Calpena





Gemini pyridinium-based amphiphiles can play a triple role as: gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) synthesis facilitator, particle stabilizer and anion recognition centre. The so formed nanoparticles should be able to bind and release anionic drugs.


We describe (a) Synthesis, by a phase transfer method, of both new organic media and water soluble AuNPs using gemini-type surfactants based on bis-pyridinium salts as ligands, acting as transfer agents into organic media and also as nanoparticle stabilizers, (b) Examination of their stability in solution, (c) Chemical and physical characterization of the nanoparticles, (d) Toxicity data concerning both the bis-pyridinium ligands and the bis-pyridinium coated nanoparticles, and (e) Study of their ability for delivering anionic pharmaceuticals such as ibuprofen and piroxicam.


Pyridinium gemini-type surfactants show the ability to play multiple roles such as transfer agent and stabilizer, as well as ionophores: They are responsible for the preparation, stability, and delivery properties of these AuNPs, which gold core is stabilized by the anions present in the bis-pyridinium salts. The tetrahydropyridine resulting from the reduction of the bis-pyridinium salt is capable of reduce gold, due to its spontaneous oxidation to the corresponding pyridinium salt, leading to the formation of stable AuNPs.


Alea-Reyes, M. E., Gonzalez, A., Calpena, A. C., Ramos-López, D., Lapuente, J. D., & Pérez-García, L. (2017). Gemini pyridinium amphiphiles for the synthesis and stabilization of gold nanoparticles for drug delivery. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 502,

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Apr 7, 2017
Online Publication Date Apr 21, 2017
Publication Date Sep 15, 2017
Deposit Date Jul 12, 2018
Publicly Available Date Jul 12, 2018
Journal Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Print ISSN 0021-9797
Electronic ISSN 1095-7103
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 502
Keywords Gemini pyridinium amphiphiles; Tetrahydropyridines; Gold nanoparticles; Anionic drug encapsulation
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