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Water scarcity assessments in the past, present and future

Liu, Junguo; Yang, Hong; Gosling, Simon N.; Kummu, Matti; Flörke, Martina; Pfister, Stephan; Hanasaki, Naota; Wada, Yoshihide; Zhang, Xinxin; Zheng, Chunmiao; Alcamo, Joseph; Oki, Taikan

Authors

Junguo Liu

Hong Yang

Simon N. Gosling

Matti Kummu

Martina Flörke

Stephan Pfister

Naota Hanasaki

Yoshihide Wada

Xinxin Zhang

Chunmiao Zheng

Joseph Alcamo

Taikan Oki



Abstract

Water scarcity has become a major constraint to socio-economic development and a threat to livelihood in increasing parts of the world. Since the late 1980s, water
scarcity research has attracted much political and public attention. We here review a variety of indicators that have been developed to capture different characteristics of
water scarcity. Population, water availability and water use are the key elements of these indicators. Most of the progress made in the last few decades has been on the
quantification of water availability and use by applying spatially explicit models. However, challenges remain on appropriate incorporation of green water (soil moisture), water quality, environmental flow requirements, globalization and virtual water trade in water scarcity assessment. Meanwhile, inter- and intra- annual variability of water availability and use also calls for assessing the temporal dimension of water scarcity. It requires concerted efforts of hydrologists, economists, social scientists, and environmental scientists to develop integrated approaches to
capture the multi-faceted nature of water scarcity.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date 2017-06
Journal Earth's Future
Electronic ISSN 2328-4277
Publisher Wiley Open Access
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 5
Issue 6
Pages 545-559
APA6 Citation Liu, J., Yang, H., Gosling, S. N., Kummu, M., Flörke, M., Pfister, S., …Oki, T. (2017). Water scarcity assessments in the past, present and future. Earth's Future, 5(6), 545-559. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016EF000518
DOI https://doi.org/10.1002/2016EF000518
Keywords Freshwater resources, green water, water quality, environmental flow requirements, virtual water, water footprint
Publisher URL http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016EF000518/abstract
Copyright Statement Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

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Copyright Statement
Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0





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