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Cohort profile: the Flu Watch Study

Fragaszy, Ellen B.; Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Wang, Lili; Copas, Andrew; Dukes, Oliver; Edmunds, W. John; Goonetilleke, Nile; Harvey, Gabrielle; Johnson, Anne M.; Kovar, Jana; Lim, Megan S.C.; McMichael, Andrew; Millett, Elizabeth R.C.; Nazareth, Irwin; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan; Tabassum, Faiza; Watson, John M.; Wurie, Fatima; Zambon, Maria; Hayward, Andrew C.

Authors

Ellen B. Fragaszy

Charlotte Warren-Gash

Lili Wang

Andrew Copas

Oliver Dukes

W. John Edmunds

Nile Goonetilleke

Gabrielle Harvey

Anne M. Johnson

Jana Kovar

Megan S.C. Lim

Andrew McMichael

Elizabeth R.C. Millett

Irwin Nazareth

Jonathan Nguyen-Van-Tam Jonathan.Van-Tam@nottingham.ac.uk

Faiza Tabassum

John M. Watson

Fatima Wurie

Maria Zambon

Andrew C. Hayward



Abstract

Influenza is a common, highly contagious respiratory virus which infects all age groups, causing a range of outcomes from asymptomatic infection and mild respiratory disease to severe respiratory disease and death.1 If infected, the adaptive immune system produces a humoral (antibody) and cell-mediated (T cell) immune response to fight the infection.2 Influenza viruses continually evolve through antigenic drift, resulting in slightly different ‘seasonal’ influenza strains circulating each year. Population-level antibody immunity to these seasonal viruses builds up over time, so in any given season only a proportion of the population is susceptible to the circulating strains. Occasionally, influenza A viruses evolve rapidly through antigenic shift by swapping genes with influenza viruses usually circulating in animals. This process creates an immunologically distinct virus to which the population may have little to no antibody immunity. The virus can result in a pandemic if a large portion of the population is susceptible and the virus is easily spread.

Journal Article Type Article
Journal International Journal of Epidemiology
Print ISSN 0300-5771
Electronic ISSN 0300-5771
Publisher Oxford University Press (OUP)
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
APA6 Citation Fragaszy, E. B., Warren-Gash, C., Wang, L., Copas, A., Dukes, O., Edmunds, W. J., …Hayward, A. C. (in press). Cohort profile: the Flu Watch Study. International Journal of Epidemiology, doi:10.1093/ije/dyv370
DOI https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyv370
Publisher URL http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2016/03/02/ije.dyv370
Copyright Statement Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

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Copyright Statement
Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0





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