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A conceptual framework toward identifying and analyzing challenges to the advancement of pharmacy

Bader, Lina R.; McGrath, Simon; Rouse, Michael J.; Anderson, Claire

A conceptual framework toward identifying and analyzing challenges to the advancement of pharmacy Thumbnail


Lina R. Bader

Simon McGrath

Michael J. Rouse


Background: Pharmacists and healthcare professionals are faced with increasing and changing health care needs around the world. In order to meet these demands, they are required to continuously upgrade and develop their professions. Reprofessionalization drives are therefore crucial to the successful delivery of health services, but traditional theories of the professions provide little practical guidance to evaluating the overall status of a profession.

Objective: This study proposes a new conceptual framework of three interrelated professional sectors: education, regulation and practice, and uses it to identify and analyse challenges facing the pharmacy profession in Jordan.

Methods: A multiple-method qualitative study comprised of semi-structured interviews and focus groups was conducted in Amman, Jordan. To explore and identify the challenges, apurposively recruited cross-sector sample of fifty-three key informants, stakeholders and pharmacists were interviewed. Interview transcripts were translated and then analysed using QSR NVivo 10. Thematic analysis identified eight main challenges facing pharmacy in Jordan. The original participants were then invited to participate in focus groups, the purpose of which was to validate the interview findings, map them against the conceptual framework and discuss recommendations for development.

Results:The eight validated challenges span the following areas: graduates preparedness for practice, pharmacy education accreditation and quality assurance, pre-registration requirements, workforce development, workforce planning, remuneration and wage rate, pharmacy assistants, and PharmD pharmacists. Focus group participants used the framework to map each of the challenges to the primary sector-to-sector disconnect that they perceived to explain it. A list of recommendations addressing each of the challenges was also devised.

Conclusions: The framework was found to offer valuable insight as an explanatory and diagnostic tool in policy-relevant research. By emphasizing the processual and contextual nature of reprofessionalization, the framework presents an alternative approach to traditional theories. This study also raises important questions regarding the status of pharmacy in Jordan and aims to provide guidance for local development and much-needed reprofessionalization drives.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Mar 1, 2016
Online Publication Date Mar 18, 2016
Publication Date Mar 18, 2016
Deposit Date Mar 22, 2016
Publicly Available Date Mar 22, 2016
Journal Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
Print ISSN 1551-7411
Electronic ISSN 1934-8150
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 13
Issue 2
Pages 321-331
Keywords Conceptual framework; Profession; Reprofessionalization; Health profession; Pharmacy profession; Pharmacy; Pharmacy education; Pharmacy regulation; Pharmacy practice; Pharmacy policy; Jordan; Jordanian pharmacists
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