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Review of defects in lattice structures manufactured by powder bed fusion

Echeta, Ifeanyichukwu; Dutton, Ben; Feng, Xiaobing; Leach, Richard; Piano, Samanta


Ifeanyichukwu Echeta

Ben Dutton

Xiaobing Feng


Additively manufactured lattice structures are popular due to their desirable properties, such as high specific stiffness and high surface area, and are being explored for several applications including aerospace components, heat exchangers and biomedical implants. The complexity of lattices challenges the fabrication limits of additive manufacturing processes and thus, lattices are particularly prone to manufacturing defects. This paper presents a review of defects in lattice structures produced by powder bed fusion processes. The review focuses on the effects of lattice design on dimensional inaccuracies, surface texture and porosity. The design constraints on lattice structures are also reviewed, as these can help to discourage defect formation. Appropriate process parameters, post-processing techniques and measurement methods are also discussed. The information presented in this paper contributes towards a deeper understanding of defects in lattice structures, aiming to improve the quality and performance of future designs.


Echeta, I., Dutton, B., Feng, X., Leach, R., & Piano, S. (2020). Review of defects in lattice structures manufactured by powder bed fusion. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 106(5-6), 2649–2668.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Nov 25, 2019
Online Publication Date Dec 30, 2019
Publication Date 2020-01
Deposit Date Dec 4, 2019
Publicly Available Date Dec 31, 2020
Journal International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
Print ISSN 0268-3768
Electronic ISSN 1433-3015
Publisher Springer Verlag
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 106
Issue 5-6
Pages 2649–2668
Keywords Lattice structures; manufacturing defects; additive manufacturing; powder bed fusion
Public URL
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