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Distributed Control Strategy Based on a Consensus Algorithm and on the Conservative Power Theory for Imbalance and Harmonic Sharing in 4-Wire Microgrids

Burgos-Mellado, Claudio; Llanos, Jacqueline; Cardenas, Roberto; Saez, Doris; Olivares, Daniel E.; Sumner, Mark; Costabeber, Alessandro


Claudio Burgos-Mellado

Jacqueline Llanos

Roberto Cardenas

Doris Saez

Daniel E. Olivares

Professor of Electrical Energy Systems

Alessandro Costabeber


A distributed control system is proposed which uses the Conservative Power Theory (CPT) and a consensus algorithm to share imbalance and harmonics between different converters in three-phase four-wire droop-controlled Microgrids (MGs). The CPT is used to identify the balanced, unbalanced and distorted components of the currents and powers in the system. Control loops based on virtual impedance and implemented in the stationary a-b-c frame are then used to distribute these components between the various converters in the MG. The magnitudes of the virtual impedances are adaptively calculated using a novel consensus-based distributed control scheme with the aim of sharing imbalances and harmonics according to the residual VA capacity of each converter whilst regulating the imbalance and distortion at their output to meet the appropriate IEEE power quality standards. Extensive simulations show that the proposed distributed control has excellent performance, and experimental validation is provided using a laboratory-scale 4-wire MG.


Burgos-Mellado, C., Llanos, J., Cardenas, R., Saez, D., Olivares, D. E., Sumner, M., & Costabeber, A. (2020). Distributed Control Strategy Based on a Consensus Algorithm and on the Conservative Power Theory for Imbalance and Harmonic Sharing in 4-Wire Microgrids. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 11(2), 1604 -1619.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Sep 5, 2019
Online Publication Date Sep 12, 2019
Publication Date 2020-03
Deposit Date Nov 22, 2019
Publicly Available Date Nov 25, 2019
Journal IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
Print ISSN 1949-3053
Electronic ISSN 1949-3061
Publisher Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 11
Issue 2
Pages 1604 -1619
Keywords 4-wire Microgrids, CPT, imbalance sharing, Harmonic sharing, Distributed control, Consensus algorithm
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