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Yoga programme for type 2 diabetes prevention (YOGA-DP) among high-risk people in India: a multi-center feasibility randomized controlled trial

Chattopadhyay, Kaushik; Mishra, Pallavi; Singh, Kavita; Singh, Kalpana; Harris, Tess; Hamer, Mark; Greenfield, Sheila Margaret; Manjunath, Nandi Krishnamurthy; Nair, Rukamani; Mukherjee, Somnath; Tandon, Nikhil; Lewis, Sarah Anne; Kinra, Sanjay


Pallavi Mishra

Kavita Singh

Kalpana Singh

Tess Harris

Mark Hamer

Sheila Margaret Greenfield

Nandi Krishnamurthy Manjunath

Rukamani Nair

Somnath Mukherjee

Nikhil Tandon

Sarah Anne Lewis

Sanjay Kinra


Many Indians are at high-risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The blood glucose level can be improved through a healthy lifestyle (such as physical activity and a healthy diet). Yoga can help in T2DM prevention, being a culturally appropriate approach to improving lifestyle. We developed a Yoga programme for T2DM prevention (YOGA-DP), a 24-week structured lifestyle education and exercise (Yoga) program that included 27 group Yoga sessions and self-practice of Yoga at home. In this study, the feasibility of undertaking a definitive randomized controlled trial (RCT) was explored that will evaluate the intervention’s effectiveness among high-risk individuals in India.

A multi-center, two-arm, parallel-group, feasibility RCT was conducted in India. The outcome assessors and data analysts were blinded. Adults with a fasting blood glucose level of 100-125 mg/dL (i.e., at high-risk of T2DM) were eligible. Participants were randomized centrally using a computer-generated randomization schedule. In the intervention group, participants received YOGA-DP. In the control group, participants received enhanced standard care.

In this feasibility trial, the recruitment of participants took 4 months (from May to September 2019). We screened 711 people and assessed 160 for eligibility. Sixty-five participants (33 in the intervention group and 32 in the control group) were randomized, and 57 (88%) participants were followed up for 6 months (32 in the intervention group and 25 in the control group). In the intervention group, the group Yoga sessions were continuously attended by 32 (97%) participants (median (interquartile range (IQR)) number of sessions attended = 27 (3)). In the intervention group, Yoga was self-practiced at home by 30 (91%) participants (median (IQR) number of days/week and minutes/day self-practiced = 2 (2) and 35 (15), respectively). In the control group, one (3%) participant attended external Yoga sessions (on Pranayama) for one week during the feasibility trial period. There was no serious adverse event.

The participant recruitment and follow-up and adherence to the intervention were promising in this feasibility study. In the control group, the potential contamination was low. Therefore, it should be feasible to undertake a definitive RCT in the future that will evaluate YOGA-DP’s effectiveness among high-risk people in India.


Chattopadhyay, K., Mishra, P., Singh, K., Singh, K., Harris, T., Hamer, M., …Kinra, S. (in press). Yoga programme for type 2 diabetes prevention (YOGA-DP) among high-risk people in India: a multi-center feasibility randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Therapy,

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Mar 8, 2023
Deposit Date Mar 17, 2023
Publicly Available Date Mar 17, 2023
Journal Diabetes Therapy
Print ISSN 1869-6953
Electronic ISSN 1869-6961
Publisher Springer Verlag
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Keywords Blood glucose; diet; feasibility study; lifestyle; Yoga; physical activity; prediabetes; prevention; randomized controlled trial
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