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Ethnic Minorities’ Experiences of Cardiac Rehabilitation: A Scoping Review

Carew Tofani, Aiesha; Taylor, Elaina; Pritchard, Ingrid; Jackson, Jessica; Xu, Alison; Kotera, Yasuhiro

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Aiesha Carew Tofani

Elaina Taylor

Ingrid Pritchard

Jessica Jackson

Alison Xu


Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) can improve cardiovascular risk factors, decrease cardiac mortality, and promote healthy lifestyle behaviours. However, services remain underutilized by groups of ethnic minorities. The purpose of the study was to identify patients’ personal CR experiences to identify the differences CR makes towards minorities’ lifestyle. An initial electronic search was performed in 2021 for papers ranging from 2008–2020 across specific databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, APA PsycINFO, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and Medline. Google Scholar was also used to supplement the search process and to identify studies performed within grey literature. A total of 1230 records were screened, of which 40 were assessed for eligibility. The final sample consisted of seven qualitative design studies that were identified for inclusion in this review. Based on patient personal experiences, this review identified that ethnic minorities continue to remain disadvantaged when accessing healthcare interventions, primarily as a result of cultural behaviours, linguistic barriers, socioeconomic status, religious and fatalistic beliefs, and low physician referral rates. More research is needed to elucidate this phenomenon and address these factors faced by ethnic minorities.


Carew Tofani, A., Taylor, E., Pritchard, I., Jackson, J., Xu, A., & Kotera, Y. (2023). Ethnic Minorities’ Experiences of Cardiac Rehabilitation: A Scoping Review. Healthcare, 11(5), Article 757.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Feb 28, 2023
Online Publication Date Mar 4, 2023
Publication Date Mar 4, 2023
Deposit Date Mar 10, 2023
Publicly Available Date Mar 13, 2023
Journal Healthcare
Electronic ISSN 2227-9032
Publisher MDPI AG
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 11
Issue 5
Article Number 757
Keywords cardiac rehabilitation; ethnic minorities; cardiovascular rehabilitation; cardiovascular disease
Public URL
Publisher URL


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