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Factor and reliability analysis of a brief scale to measure motivation to change lifestyle for dementia risk reduction in the UK: the MOCHAD-10

Oliveira, Deborah; Aubeeluck, Aimee; Stupple, Ed; Kim, Sarang; Orrell, Martin


Deborah Oliveira

Professor of Health Psychology Education

Ed Stupple

Sarang Kim

Director - Institute of Mental Health


Background: Modifying lifestyle risk factors for dementia is a public health priority. Motivation for change is integral to the modification of health risk behaviours. This study investigates the psychometric properties of the previously validated tool entitled ‘Motivation to Change Lifestyle and Health Behaviours for Dementia Risk Reduction Scale’ (MCLHB-DRR) for use in the UK.
Methods: A sample of 3,948 individuals aged 50 and over completed the 27-item MCLHB-DRR online. The psychometric properties of the scale were explored via Exploratory Principal Axis Factoring (PAF) with Oblimin rotation. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to confirm the factor structure using chi-square (χ2), the goodness-of-fit index (GFI), the comparative fit index (CFI), the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) and Root Mean Square Residual (RMR) as fit indices to evaluate the model fit. Internal consistency (Cronbach α) was measured for the final scale version.
Results: Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) resulted in a parsimonious 10-item, two-factor structure (5 items each, factor loadings > 0.3) that explained 52.83% of total variance. Based on the Pattern Matrix, Factor 1 was labelled “Positive Cues to Action” and Factor 2 was labelled “Negative Cues to Action”. After addressing some errors in covariances, CFA showed a good fit where all fit indices were larger than 0.90 (GFI = 0.968, CFI = 0.938) and smaller than 0.08 (RMSEA=0.072, RMR=0.041). The standardized coefficients of Factor 1 and Factor 2 ranged from 0.30 to 0.73 and were all statistically significant (p


Oliveira, D., Aubeeluck, A., Stupple, E., Kim, S., & Orrell, M. (2019). Factor and reliability analysis of a brief scale to measure motivation to change lifestyle for dementia risk reduction in the UK: the MOCHAD-10. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 17,

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Apr 10, 2019
Online Publication Date May 2, 2019
Publication Date May 2, 2019
Deposit Date Apr 12, 2019
Publicly Available Date May 8, 2019
Journal Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Electronic ISSN 1477-7525
Publisher Springer Verlag
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 17
Article Number 75
Keywords Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health; General Medicine
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information Received: 23 October 2018; Accepted: 11 April 2019; First Online: 2 May 2019; : This study was approved by the East Midlands - Nottingham Research Ethics Committee Ethics Committee (IRAS project ID 177280; REC reference 16/EM/0044). The study was conducted in accordance with the British Psychological Society Code of Ethics and all participant who took part in the anonymous survey provided informed consent.; : Not applicable.; : The authors declare that they have no competing interests.; : Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.


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