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Formation and healing of defects in atomically thin GaSe and InSe

Hopkinson, David G.; Z�lyomi, Viktor; Rooney, Aidan P.; Clark, Nick; Terry, Daniel J.; Hamer, Matthew; Lewis, David J.; Allen, Christopher S.; Kirkland, Angus I.; Andreev, Yuri; Kudrynskyi, Zakhar; Kovalyuk, Zakhar; Patan�, Amalia; Fal 'ko, Vladimir I.; Gorbachev, Roman; Haigh, Sarah J.


David G. Hopkinson

Viktor Z�lyomi

Aidan P. Rooney

Nick Clark

Daniel J. Terry

Matthew Hamer

David J. Lewis

Christopher S. Allen

Angus I. Kirkland

Yuri Andreev

Nottingham Research Anne Mclaren Fellows

Zakhar Kovalyuk

Vladimir I. Fal 'ko

Roman Gorbachev

Sarah J. Haigh


© 2019 American Chemical Society. Two dimensional III-VI metal monochalcogenide materials, such as GaSe and InSe, are attracting considerable attention due to their promising electronic and optoelectronic properties. Here, an investigation of point and extended atomic defects formed in mono-, bi-, and few-layer GaSe and InSe crystals is presented. Using state-of-the-art scanning transmission electron microscopy, it is observed that these materials can form both metal and selenium vacancies under the action of the electron beam. Selenium vacancies are observed to be healable: recovering the perfect lattice structure in the presence of selenium or enabling incorporation of dopant atoms in the presence of impurities. Under prolonged imaging, multiple point defects are observed to coalesce to form extended defect structures, with GaSe generally developing trigonal defects and InSe primarily forming line defects. These insights into atomic behavior could be harnessed to synthesize and tune the properties of 2D post-transition-metal monochalcogenide materials for optoelectronic applications.


Hopkinson, D. G., Zólyomi, V., Rooney, A. P., Clark, N., Terry, D. J., Hamer, M., …Haigh, S. J. (2019). Formation and healing of defects in atomically thin GaSe and InSe. ACS Nano, 13(5), 5112-5123.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Apr 4, 2019
Online Publication Date Apr 4, 2019
Publication Date May 28, 2019
Deposit Date Apr 5, 2019
Publicly Available Date Apr 5, 2020
Journal ACS Nano
Print ISSN 1936-0851
Electronic ISSN 1936-086X
Publisher American Chemical Society
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 13
Issue 5
Pages 5112-5123
Keywords General Engineering; General Physics and Astronomy; General Materials Science
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information This document is the unedited Author’s version of a Submitted Work that was subsequently accepted for publication in ACS Nano, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review. To access the final edited and published work see


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