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Influence of inverter-interfaced renewable energy generators on directional relay and an improved scheme

Jia, Ke; Zhe, Yang; Fang, Yu; Bi, Tianshu; Sumner, Mark


Ke Jia

Yang Zhe

Yu Fang

Tianshu Bi

Professor of Electrical Energy Systems


Renewable energy sources (RESs) are typically interfaced to the grid using power electronics which can cause their fault current characteristics to display significant low frequency harmonics and unbalanced sequence impedances. Such current characteristics can lead to the operation failure of fault component based directional relays. To demonstrate the influence of inverter-interfaced renewable energy generators (IIREGs) on directional relays in detail, analytical expressions for the IIREG equivalent positive- and negative-sequence superimposed impedances are derived in this paper. Considering various factors, the angular characteristics of the sequence superimposed impedances are investigated. Based on these attributes, it can be concluded that fault component based directional relays may be unable to operate in some circumstances. A novel high-frequency impedance-based protection scheme is proposed to manage the adaptability problem by determining the fault direction due to a stable impedance angle. The theoretical analysis and the proposed scheme are tested and verified through real time digital simulation (RTDS) simulation and field testing data.


Jia, K., Zhe, Y., Fang, Y., Bi, T., & Sumner, M. (2019). Influence of inverter-interfaced renewable energy generators on directional relay and an improved scheme. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 34(12), 11843-11855.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Mar 7, 2019
Online Publication Date Mar 13, 2019
Publication Date Mar 13, 2019
Deposit Date Mar 27, 2019
Publicly Available Date Mar 28, 2019
Journal IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
Print ISSN 0885-8993
Electronic ISSN 1941-0107
Publisher Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 34
Issue 12
Pages 11843-11855
Keywords Angular characteristics, Directional relay, High-frequency impedance, Renewable power sources, Sequence superimposed impedance
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Additional Information © 2019 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.


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