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Remotely controlled in situ growth of silver microwires forming bioelectronic interfaces

Sanjuan-Alberte, Paola; Saleh, Ehab; Shaw, Andie J.; Lacalendola, Nicola; Willmott, Geoff; Vaithilingam, Jayasheelan; Alexander, Morgan R.; Hague, Richard J. M.; Rawson, Frankie J.

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Paola Sanjuan-Alberte

Ehab Saleh

Andie J. Shaw

Nicola Lacalendola

Geoff Willmott

Jayasheelan Vaithilingam

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Professor of Biomedical Surfaces

Professor of Additive Manufacturing


There is a pressing need to advance our ability to construct three-dimensional (3D) functional bioelectronic interfaces. Additionally, to ease the transition to building cellular electronic systems, a remote approach to merge electrical components with biology is desirable. By combining 3D digital inkjet printing with bipolar electrochemistry, we remotely control and fabricate conductive wires, forming a first of its kind contactless bionic manufacturing procedure. It enables controlled fabrication of conductive wires in a three-dimensional configuration. Moreover, we demonstrate that this technology could be used to grow and interface conductive conduits in situ with mammalian cells, offering a new strategy to engineering bioelectronic interfaces. This represents a step change in the production of functional complex circuitry and considerably increases the manufacturing capabilities of merging cells with electronics. This approach provides a platform to construct bioelectronics in situ offering a potential paradigm shift in the methods for building bioelectronics with potential applications in biosensing and bioelectronic medicine.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Feb 8, 2019
Online Publication Date Feb 8, 2019
Publication Date Feb 8, 2019
Deposit Date Mar 1, 2019
Publicly Available Date Apr 3, 2019
Journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Print ISSN 1944-8244
Electronic ISSN 1944-8252
Publisher American Chemical Society
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 11
Issue 9
Pages 8928-8936
Keywords bioelectronic interfaces, microwire growth, bipolar electrochemistry, inkjet printing, bionic manufacturing
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