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Open innovation in services: knowledge sources, intellectual property rights and internationalisation

Battisti, Giuliana; Gallego, Jorge; Rubalcaba, Luis; Windrum, Paul


Giuliana Battisti

Jorge Gallego

Luis Rubalcaba


The paper investigates the direction of knowledge flows and, more generally, the pattern of open innovation that is taking place within services across Europe. Using the Eurostat CIS4 dataset, on 17 service sectors across 18 countries, we find significant differences between service innovation leaders and followers. Key findings are that a concentration of radical innovation is to be found mainly in knowledge-intensive R&D sectors; that leading innovators across all sectors tend to use IPR to protect their ideas; and that leading service innovators engage in international sales. We do not find evidence that external sources of information acquisition are significant in radical service product innovation. By contrast, innovation followers rely more extensively on external sourcing of knowledge and new ideas (with decreasing returns to innovation performance), and tend not to export. These findings contribute significantly to our understanding of the knowledge flows and the asymmetries in knowledge sharing in services sectors across Europe.


Battisti, G., Gallego, J., Rubalcaba, L., & Windrum, P. (2014). Open innovation in services: knowledge sources, intellectual property rights and internationalisation. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 25(3), 223-247

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 19, 2014
Online Publication Date Oct 28, 2014
Publication Date Oct 28, 2014
Deposit Date Feb 26, 2019
Publicly Available Date Apr 3, 2019
Print ISSN 1043-8599
Electronic ISSN 1476-8364
Publisher Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 25
Issue 3
Pages 223-247
Keywords Services, Innovation performance, Open innovation, R&D, Intellectual property; rights (IPR), Internationalisation
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Economics of Innovation and New Technology on 28.10.2014, available online:


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